RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF AYETORO 1 SUBSTATION, AGUDA, LAGOS STATE

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ABSTRACT


A power system is set up basically to meet the demands of the customers. However, interruptions which are largely unavoidable contribute to the unavailability of power and thus prevent power system from achieving this. In most cases, it is the sustained interruptions that greatly affect both the utility company and its customers. Hence, it is necessary to find means of determining which component failure contributes most to the unavailability of the distribution system, and how this unavailability actually affects the customers. This is to enable system planners and designers to seek better ways of improving the reliability of a typical secondary distribution substation system having a single-end fed radial configuration. By using analytical method and network reduction technique, the substation reliability was analyzed based on the outage data gotten from the utility company. The conclusion from this work shows that transformer failure followed by the fuse failure contributes most to the substation’s unavailability. The overall system availability shows that the system’s performance is poor.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF FIGURE
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 OVERVIEW
2.1 RELIABILITY PRINCIPLES
2.1.1 Different Types of Interruption
            2.1.1.1 Momentary Interruption
            2.1.1.2 Temporary Interruption
            2.1.1.3 Sustained Interruption
            2.1.1.4 Planned Interruption
            2.1.1.5 Unplanned Interruption
2.1.2 Capacity Shortages
2.1.3 Faults and Failures
2.2 RELIABILITY EVALUATION
2.2.1 Analytical Method
            2.2.1.1 Network Technique
            2.2.1.2 Markov Modeling
2.2.2 Simulation Technique
2.3 RELIABILITY INDICES
2.4 LITERATURE REVIEW OF CURRENT RESEARCH PAPERS
2.5 SUMMARY

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.0 OVERVIEW
3.1 OBJECTIVES
3.2 RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT, METRICS AND INDICES
3.3 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS
3.3.1 Network Modeling
3.3.2 Series System
3.3.3 Parallel System
3.4 RELIABILITY INDICES
3.5 COLLECTION OF DATA
3.6 SUMMARY

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 OVERVIEW
4.1 DATA COLLECTED FROM AYETORO 1 SUBSTATION
4.2 BASIC DESIGN LAYOUT
4.3 MAJOR CAUSES OF INTERRUPTION IN DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION
4.3.1 Overhead Lines
4.3.2 Poles
4.3.3 Transformer
4.3.4 Circuit Breakers
4.3.5 Lightning
4.4 RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF THE COMPONENTS
4.4.2 Interpretation of Component Reliability Evaluation Results
4.5 RELIABILITY INDICES EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTATION
4.6 CUSTOMER RELIABILITY INDICES EVALUATION
4.6.1 Interpretation of Customer Reliability Evaluation Results
4.6.2Comparison of This Dissertation’s Results with Reliability Benchmark Indices
4.7 SUMMARY

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0       SUMMARY
5.1       ACHIEVEMENTS
5.2       RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX


CHAPTER 1




INTRODUCTION


1.1        BACKGROUND

Electric power system is basically set up to supply electricity with little or no interruptions to its customers. The number of interruptions that occur while the system performs its intended function is part of what determines the overall reliability of the system. The other factor that determines its reliability is the quality of electricity delivered. Furthermore, the capability of a power system to continuously deliver quality electricity means that the customers are satisfied and the electricity providers are having favorable returns on their investment as they continue their business of supplying electricity. As electricity consumption has become an important factor that affects the drive needed for technology to grow and to facilitate the development of modern society, it is very important therefore to take seriously the issue of reliability of an electric power system.

Generation, transmission and distribution are the three subsystems of an electric power system. At the generating station, electricity is generated and transmitted through the high voltage transmission lines to the distribution substations. The distribution substation system considered covers the electrical system between the substation fed by the subtransmission system and the supply line to the consumers’ meters i.e. 11kV to 0.415kV transformation (Theraja and Theraja, 2005). The distribution substations are usually sited relatively near the customers for effective delivery, monitoring and maintenance of the substation and the customer end and are usually referred to as secondary distribution substation system. Distribution systems basically serve as the link from the distribution substation to the customer. Reliable and safe transfer of electricity to the customers covered by the distribution area is ensured by this system and is the main subject studied in this dissertation.


In terms of reliability evaluation and modeling, generating stations have justifiably received more attention than the other systems because they are individually capital intensive. In addition, in the event of generation inadequacy and generation loss there is usually widespread catastrophic effects on the society and environment. It impacts directly on the whole system and even distribution system will not be able to perform its duty because there will be no electricity to supply to customers. However based on published research work and studies, distribution systems have begun to receive moderate attention compared to past decades. In most cases, when there is disturbance in form of failure which results in outages in the distribution system it affects only the localized territory. Only in few cases does the fault move up in to the system largely as a result of protection failure. Analysis of the customer failure statistics of most electricity companies shows that the distribution system makes the greatest individual contribution to the unavailability of supply to a customer (Gonen, 2014). In effect, the purpose of establishing generating stations and the hurdles overcome to transmit electricity is defeated when it does not get to the user end as a result of distribution system failure. This makes distribution system to be highly important. The distribution systems account for up to 90% of all customer reliability problems, improving distribution reliability is the key to improving customer reliability (Billinton and Jonnavithula, 1996).

Meanwhile, as the main aim of a power system is to meet the electricity needs of the customers and this can only be achieved when the components making up the system are performing their intended function properly for as long as the system is in operation, it is important that the demand for electricity and its supply be properly viewed and included in setting up the system. Therefore, due to its high impact on the cost of electricity and its corresponding effect on customer satisfaction, distribution reliability is very important. However, as in any other viable engineering system, there are challenges that face power distribution system which tends to make the system unreliable. One of these is the issue of serving its main purpose which is to supply quality electricity with little or no interruptions. This problem is inevitable in power systems across the world but the way they are managed is what makes it different from country to country. For instance in the United States, there is nearly an uninterrupted delivery of quality electricity to its numerous customers which makes it rank among the most dependable in the world. It is in management of the power systems that reliability evaluation becomes significant. Reliability evaluation does not in any way make a system more reliable but it helps in system planning and identification of weak components.


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