INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS IN DUTSIN-MA METROPOLIS

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ABSTRACT
It is a common belief that children will thrive if educated amongst better schoolmates, and this belief guides many parents in their choice of school. Many studies have tried to measure this peer-group influence, and this project was to extend this literature by looking at the “Influence of peer group on students’ achievement in senior secondary school mathematics in Dutsin-ma Metropolis”. The study was guided by the following objectives, Investigate the influence of peer group on secondary school students’ mathematics achievement in Dutsin-ma metropolis, Determine if there exist significant difference between influence of peer group on male students’ achievement in mathematics and female students’ achievement in mathematics; and Identify if there exist significant difference between influence of peer group on senior secondary school students’ achievement in mathematics and junior secondary school students’ achievement in mathematics. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a sample size of one hundred and twenty (120) students were used from six secondary schools selected in Dutsin-ma Metropolis. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Validity of data collection tools was achieved through consultation with research experts and reliability of data collection instruments of this study was determined using the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient before the actual collection of data. The data collected were presented in APA tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies. The three null hypothesis were tested using the t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The influence of peer group on students’ achievement in senior secondary school mathematics which capture the influence of a student classmates on his achievement in mathematics.

KEY WORDS: Peer group, Influence, Students’ achievement.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of content
List of Tables
List of Appendices

CHAPTER ONE
Background of the Study
1.1       Background to the study
1.2       Statement of the problem
1.3       Objectives of the Research
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Research Hypotheses
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope of the Study
1.8       Operational Definition of Key Terms
1.9       Summary

CHAPTER TWO
Review of Related Literature
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Factors influencing students’ achievement in mathematics
2.3       Students’ achievement in secondary school mathematics
2.4       Implication of the review
2.5       Summary

CHAPTER THREE
Methodology
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3.1    Population of the Study
3.3.2    Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4.1    Research Instrument
3.4.2    Validation of the Instrument
3.4.3    Reliability of the Instrument
3.4.4    Procedure for Data collection
3.4.5    Method of Scoring
3.5       Statistical Technique
3.6       Summary

CHAPTER FOUR
Data Analysis and Discussion
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Demographic Data of the Respondent
4.3       Descriptive Analysis
4.3.1    Research Question 1
4.3.2    Research Question 2
4.3.3    Research Question 3
4.4       Inferential Analysis
4.4.1    Test of Hypothesis 1
4.4.2    Test of Hypothesis 2
4.4.3    Test of Hypothesis 3
4.5       General Discussion
4.5       Summary

CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Suggestion for Further Research
5.5       Limitation of the research
References

Appendices


CHAPTER ONE
                                                            INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Mathematics being the foundation of scientific knowledge receive greater attention from the parents, teachers, communities, leaders and governments. The success and failure of students’ achievement in mathematics in our secondary schools are determined by student’s interest in mathematics. Peer groups are among the most influential social forces affecting adolescent behavior from mundane decisions concerning clothing, hairstyle, music, and entertainment, to more significant decisions concerning short and long-term education plans. During the formative adolescent years, peers are arguably even more important than parents, teachers, counselors and the peer-influence decisions of youth can have long-lasting consequences (Coleman et-al, 1966). Parents recognize the importance of peer groups and through their choice of neighborhoods, schools, and activities (Lareau et-al, 2003). Attempt to guide and direct their Children’s friendship selections, in school which can be increasingly challenging during adolescence. Peer group has always been a menace in our societies, social relations, and students’ achievement.
Regardless of socio-economic status, parents want their children to be surrounded by the best possible social networks, especially during adolescence, when youth are increasingly independent from parents. During these formative years, educational goals take form, and youth make a series of decisions that shape their educational trajectories, even as their friendship networks gain influence upon these decisions. Unfortunately, the peer effects literature is lacking in two main areas. The first is that peer effects are assumed to be uniform across class, gender, and race and ethnicity. Race and ethnicity is especially likely to be important because adolescents are more likely to choose friends of the same racial and ethnic group (Hamm, Brown & Heck 2005); introducing the possibility that peers have differing effects by race and ethnicity. The second problem is that few studies focus on academic decisions that are directly influenced by friends, such as course or track selection and college choices. Instead, most studies of peer effects focus on educational outcomes that are indirectly influenced by friends, such as early cognitive development, grades, promotion, and, most commonly, test scores (Zimmerman et-al, 2003). Hanushek et al, (2003) have pointed out that if innovations to behavior form an important avenue through which peers affect outcomes, in mathematic the inability to capture such behavior might lead to a serious underestimation of peer influences. Thus, behavior decisions may lie at the intersection between peers and achievement – effectively acting as a mediator through which the influence of peers passes prior to shaping students’ achievement in mathematics.
The research intend to find out the level of students interest in mathematics and the problem associated with the achievement of the subject as a result of peer group interaction as well as solution to the problem in the study area and even beyond are to be highlighted.
There are many factors affecting achievement in mathematics, peer group influence is one of the major factor especially in physical science, particularly mathematics which is consider as the mother of natural and applied science as well as technology..

The peer group to the examining here are between the ages of (15-21) years with interest or ideas, some groups are slightly closed observed while others are closed kink. They may be social or anti-social creative in common places.


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