INCIDENCE OF URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS AND THE CONTRIBUTORY RISK FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN AGULU

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the incidence and association of urinary Schistosomiasis among a cross section of two primary school (Agulu migrant and Umuowelle primary school) in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra state. A cross sectional study was done with a total of 60 participants that provided urine samples to be examined for urinary Schistosomiasis. The schools  were Agulu migrant and Umuowelle primary school. The urine samples were examined using the sedimentation and flotation techniques. The study was carried out during the months of November to December 2015.The data was analysed and the following result were obtained: 25(41.6%) out of the 60 samples examined were infected ; with the infection occurring high within the age range of 8-10 years 11(55%). of the 30 pupils sampled in umuowelle primary school , 12(40%) were infected while 18(60%) were not infected . 13(43.3%) out of the pupils examined from Agulu migrant school were infected and 17(56.6%)were not infected. Hence, based on d findings, it is clear there is a prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis among school children in Agulu and therefore intervention in the study area is needed.  


CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                                            INTROUDUTION    
            Schistosomiasis is also known as bilharzia or “snail fever”. It is a parasitic disease carried by fresh water snail infected with one of the five varieties of the parasite schistosoma. Found predominantly in tropics and sub-tropical climates. (Chitsulo, 2000), schistosoma ranks second only to malaria as the most occurring parasitic disease in the tropics (chitsulo, 2000).
1.1                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
        The schistosomes or blood flukes belong to the class trematoda of the phylum platyhelmintes. They are parasites of the blood stream of warm blooded vertebrates. The species which infect man are schistosoma haematobium, s mansoni, s intercalum and s japonicum. They cause the disease known as schistosomiasis or bilharziasis (uyaeme, 2011).
        Urinary schistosomiasis caused by fluke worm s haematobium is one of the most common tropical olisease which poses serious health hazard due to its associated morbidities. Globally, over 153 million people are infected with this parasitic infection (WHO1999). In Nigeria, a good number of foci infections have been documented in various parts of the country (Egwunyenga et al, 1994).
        In developing countries, the true epidemiological picture appears difficult because of inadequate researches in this direction despite its relevance in planning and control in any locality. This problem is compounded by the poor habits of people in developing countries in visiting hospital, for treatment. Also, self medication is still practiced as manifested by anti-helmintic abuse. This act is worsened by presence of inadequate health facilities. One of the consequences of the self-medication of the anti-helminthics abuse includes the suppression of the egg laying capacity of the worms. The net effect is erroneous diagnosis using ova in urine in any locality. This may also become evident in sub clinical cases and period of immaturity of the worms when they are yet to commence egg laying. Another obvious difficulty occurs during the early stages of infections. Although the uses of serological diagnosis are available, poverty poses a serious impediment to the.... 


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