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This study was conducted to examine and evaluate factors affecting attitudes of biology teachers towards improvisation of instructional materials in Dutsin-ma local government. Descriptive research approach was used with simple sampling method. The population of the study consisted of 55 randomly selected SSII senior secondary school teachers and students. The questionnaires had 20 major items for each, which fall into four categories namely: teachers training and skills to improvise; time available for improvisation;  extent of support teachers get from the school authority to improvised materials; and readiness of teachers to improvise when readymade materials are not available or scarce. Questionnaires were administered to collect data and analyzed using frequency and percentage. The result revealed that: not all biology teachers are professionally trained teachers, although they have positive perceptions towards improvisation.  Also a lot of obstacles confronted teachers from improvising; such as lack of support from school authorities, times constraint, lack of motivation and teachers find it difficult to improvise instructional materials. The study therefore, recommends among others, that all education programmes should include a course on improvisation, government and stakeholders in education should see to support and motivate the biology teachers to improvise, and biology teachers should attend conferences, workshops and seminars on improvisation regularly.


Title page
Table of content

1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research question
1.5 Hypothesis
1.6 Significant of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Operational definition of term

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Conceptual Frame Work
2.2.1    Importance of science/biology teaching in schools
2.2.2    Academic Achievement in Biology and its Impediments
2.2.3    Attitude and Its Formation
2.2.4    Factors that affect attitudes of teachers’ towards improvisation of Instructional Resources
2.2.5    Improvisation and Skills for Improvisation
2.2.6    Factors to be considered in planning improvisation
2.3 Summary of Literature Review

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research design
3.3 Population
3.4 Sample and sampling technique
3.5 Research instrument
 3.6 Validity of the instrument
3.7 Reliability of the instrument
3.8 Procedure for data collection
3.9 Method of data analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Data analysis and results
4.3 Summary of Findings
4.4 Summary of findings
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study

1.1   Background to the Study
Science is the bedrock on which modern day technological breakthrough is hinged. Different authors according to their own understanding have defined Science. Igwe (2003) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of the behaviour of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recording. In addition, Esu (2004) defined science as a systematic, precise, objective way to study the natural world. Science is often an exciting and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight based on this Ajayi (2008) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application.
For the country to derive the maximum benefit from science, it has to be taught practically. The importance of the practical work in science collides with non availability of materials. It is clearly seen that the foundation of all training in science is that of firsthand experience with the real things.
Instructional materials play the role of a stimulant in the teaching and learning process. They introduce the learner to firsthand material, and convey a precious quality of intimacy (Amadi, 2002). In furtherance, they help the mind of a learner on what is taught apart from being aids to memory. Furthermore they make learning and teaching more understandable and real. Instructional materials boost teaching and learning as they stimulate thinking and concretize learning (Ige, 2000). Successful implementation of any curriculum is almost fully dependent on the quality and quantity of instructional materials available to teachers and students for use in schools (Usman and Adewwuri, 2006). Instructional material have been defined and explained by many and in several ways; Eniayeju (2005) explained instructional materials as materials which provide concrete experiences which a learner needs in order to develop intellectually. They are also defined as materials capable of achieving the objectives of the concept to be taught (Adebimpe, 2005).
            Biology as a field of study has a controlling influence over peoples lives. The study of biology also enables man to understand live processes. Biology as a subject taught in secondary schools in Dutsin-ma local government area, is always faced with many challenges. Some of these challenges include; lack of qualified teachers, lack of standard equipment and lack of incentives/support from school administrators. In the teaching of this major science subject (Biology) problems and difficulties encountered are indispensable. It demands among others adequate and effective supply of appropriate teaching and learning materials. “Most instructional science learning equipments and materials are not really available in secondary schools” (Ahmed 2010). Part of the problems of getting the materials may be associated with our current economic predicament. In most cases, the items or equipments are imported and their prices are expensive. However, the supply of these equipments may be delayed when companies supplying face importation huddles. Similarly there is acute shortage of man power to handle some of the imported or sophisticated science equipments.

The report of West African Examination Council (WAEC) on the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) (2011) on student enrolment and performance in Nigeria by subject, grade, and sex revealed low enrolment of girls for science subjects as well as low academic achievement in biology and other science subjects and the persistent poor achievement of students in biology at senior school certificate examination (WAEC; Chief Examiner’s report 2007-2010), leaves one in doubt about the effectiveness of instructional materials and teaching methods popularly used by the biology teachers for the teaching and learning of biology.

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