EXAMINE THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL) SEED

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and cardiac glycosides in PerseaAmericana will be carried out. The sample will be prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample will be stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid will be determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid and tannin by ferric chloride test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. The quantitative determination of alkaloid was carried out by the method of Harborne,(1993)and Obadoni and Ochuko,(2001). Flavonoid will be determined by the method of Boham and Kocipai,(1994). Tannin will be determined by the method of Pearson, while cordial glycoside will be determined by wang and filled method.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .
Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.
A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). it is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).
Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americana leaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro....


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