DESIGN OF A WATER STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER REUSE IN COVENANT UNIVERSITY

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ABSTRACT


This research is focused at designing of water storage facilities of size 875,000 litres (750,000 litres for underground water storage, and 125,000 Litres for elevated steel tank) of treated wastewater and its transmission system for the storage and re-use of treated wastewater. The project is aimed to structurally design water storage facilities and its transmission system from the reservoir to the overhead tank for the re-use of treated wastewater in Covenant University. The design works was divided into two major parts namely: Transmission system design, and water storage facility Design. Transmission design was divided into two, which are the field activities, and the software activities. Magellan eXplorist 350H North America GPS (Global Positioning System) was used for the field activities, it was used to determine coordinates (Longitudinal and Latitudinal) of various location of points in the university campus, its key usage was to determine the lowest and the highest elevation points on campus, the highest elevated coordinate point was located in between the male postgraduate hall of residence and the postgraduate cafeteria, and the lowest elevated point was at the existing wetland which is directly opposite Daniel’s hall in the campus. The software used for transmission system is WaterCAD, which was used to design the flow path network from the lowest elevation to the highest elevation point. The water storage facility design software used are Staad pro., Orion, and AutoCAD. Staad pro. Was used to analyse and design for the underground water tank, and the elevated steel water tank, while Orion software was used for concrete design and it was used to detail the underground water tank. The result gotten from all the design software were imported to AutoCAD software for editing, scaling, and proper output result.


TABLE OF CONTENT

List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Plates
Abbreviations and Symbols
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Aim of Study
1.4       Objectives of Study
1.5       Justification for the Research
1.6       Scope of Study
1.7       Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Wastewater
2.2       Water Reticulation System
2.3       Socio-Economic Studies on Reticulation System
2.4       Synopsis of Related Elevated Water Tanks

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
3.1       Materials
3.2       Method
3.2.1    Transmission System
3.2.1.1 Magellan eXplorist 350H North America GPS (Global Positioning System)
3.2.1.2 Google Earth
3.2.1.3 WaterCAD
3.3       Water Storage Design
3.3.1    STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECT series 4)
3.3.2    Orion 18
3.3.3    AutoCAD 2013

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Preamble
4.2       Reticulation System
4.2.1    Field Activities
4.2.2    Software
4.2.2.1 Google Earth
4.2.2.2 WaterCAD:
4.3       HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE
4.3.1    Software
4.3.1.1 STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECT series 4) and Orion 18 (UNDERGROUND WATER TANK)
4.3.1.2 STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 4) (ELEVATED WATER STEEL TANK)
4.4       SUMMARY OF MATERIALS

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation
Reference
APPENDIX


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Hydraulic structure such as underground reservoirs and overhead tanks are used to store liquid products such as water and wastewater. The force analyses (such as internal pressure) of the underground reservoirs or overhead tanks are about the same irrespective of the chemical structure (steel or concrete) of the storage unit. Wastewater reuse has been in existence for a very long time more precisely is an ancient practice, which has been taken into consideration since the beginning of human history, and being practiced in virtually all part of the world, of which suffer from drought conditions (Burgess, Meeker, Minton, O’Donohue, Devine, Cook, & Weinstein, 2015). Reuse of untreated city or town wastewater has been practiced in many countries with the aim of diverting of human waste outside of urban settlements. In a similar way, land application of domestic wastewater is an ancient and universal practice, which has gone through various stages of development. This has led to better understanding of process involve in treatment technology and the eventual development of water quality standards (Paranychianakis, Salgot, Snyder, & Angelakis, 2015).


Wastewater reuse of which is also known as water reclamation and wastewater recycling can be defined as used water that contains waste substances from homes, factories and farms and can also be defined as the use of reclaimed water for beneficial purposes, such as agricultural, landscape and field irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, fire protection, and replenishing of surface water and groundwater recharge. Wastewater reuse is integral to workable water management due to the fact that it enables water to remain in the environment and be reserved for future consumption while meeting water prerequisite of the water.

US EPA, states that water is a limiting resource of which the force or pressure applied to groundwater resources should be minimized or at best maintained, instead of increased, as the number human increased and industrial development increase. Wastewater reuse and water recycling is thus an increasing importance, of which is not often use in arid regions only but also in municipal and contaminated environments, Groundwater aquifers used by over 50% of the world population are being over-drafted, as the matter of fact, it is not encouraged to use water once and dispose of it; it is important to ascertain ways to reuse water. Reuse will continue to escalate as the population of the world becomes increasingly urbanized and more condensed. Abundant quantities of freshwater can be saved by wastewater reuse and recycling, lowering costs, reducing environmental pollution and enhancing carbon footprint; thereby knowing reuse is a sustained and cost-efficient option for water supply (Burgess, et al., 2015).

Wastewater reuse can reduce water use in both rural and urban households. Most likely most home at presently, use portable drinkable water for virtually everything in the house i.e. we are literally flushing our drinking water down the toilet. Vividly domestic wastewater can be divided into two parts, which is Grey water and Black water. Grey water is wastewater of which is from non-toilet plumbing such as basins, taps, and showers. Black water is wastewater that has various wastes from the toilet. Because of the prospective contamination by grease and organism that cause diseases (pathogen).

Covenant University, Ota has the population of eight thousand, one hundred and eleven (8,111) people living on campus. About one million, ninety-two thousand, five hundred and fifty-two litres....


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