ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY

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CHAPTER 1
1.0   INTRODUCTION
            The international Association for impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as “the process identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made. Atmospheric composition affects air quality, weather, climate, and critical constituents such as ozone and aerosols which in turn have effect on printed product. Atmospheric composition is central to earth system dynamics, since the atmosphere integrates surface emissions globally on time scales form weeks to years an involves several environmental issues.

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Outdoor printed product diminishes in ink content, degree value and contrast over time due to the several environmental and atmospherically conditions or effects on the ink.
The atmosphere of earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet earth that is retained by earth’s gravity. The atmosphere protects life on earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heart relention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).
The common name given to the atmospheric gases used in breathing and photosynthesis is air. By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, (i) 0.93% argon, 0.039% carton dioxide, and small amounts of other gases, thus invariably the composite elements of air. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapour, on average around 1%.
        Considering the atmospheric constituents of chemicals and which results to several radiation and reactions against constituent chemicals of a printed product hence the study “ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY”.


1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In complacent agreement with the background above it is quite obvious and evident that lack of adequate information and knowledge in printing material (substrate) paper, ink and their formulations in elation to their environment is prevalent in most developing countries of the world. As a result of this lacuna in knowledge printers within the aforementioned sphere (the scope of our study) has concurrently suffered integrity and valued decadence from print buyers and consumers at large, even the researcher of this project has suffered integrity damage due to light fastness.

        A large portion of the industry is yet to have adequate comprehensiveness as regarding printed products in relation to their environment. 


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