A HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN KADUNA STATE, 1987 - 2011

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ABSTRACT

Violence in general terms has been a cancerous disease that has continued to eat deep into the fabric of our society. Religious violence has for long hampered growth, unity and development in our society and our country at large. The conflicts had been studied by various scholars in an effort to reconstruct the genesis of the whole issue in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria and Nigeria at large. However it is on the bases that this project reconstruct the history of religious violence as it affect the people and government of Kaduna state from 1987 to 2011. It discuss religious violence, its causes and consequences in Kaduna. The researcher concludes by advancing that within the period of study violence has been a recurring phenomenon in the History of Kaduna and also recommend ways or means through which this violence can be ameliorated. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abbreviations
Table of contents
Abstract

Chapter One: Background of the Study
1.0       Introduction
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.3 Significance of the Study
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Literature Review
1.7 Conceptual Clarification
1.8 Theoretical Framework
1.9 Conclusion
Endnotes

Chapter Two: Historical Background of the Study Area (Kaduna State)
2.0       Introduction
2.1 Geographical Location of Kaduna State
2.2 Historical Background of Kaduna State
2.3 The Political Organization of the State
2.4 The Economic Activities of the State
2.5 Social Development in the State
2.6 Conclusion
2.7 Map
Endnotes

Chapter Three: The Nature of Religious Violence in Kaduna State
3.0       Introduction
3.1 Religious Violence in Kaduna State
3.2 Religious Violence from 1987 to 1994
3.3 Religious Violence from 1995 to 2002
3.4 Religious Violence from 2003 to 2011
3.5 Conclusion
Endnote

Chapter Four: The Effects of Religious Violence in Kaduna State
4.0       Introduction
4.1 Effects of Religious Violence
4.1.1 Political Effect
4.1.2 Economic Consequence
4.1.3 Social Impact
4.2 Conclusion
Endnote

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.0       Summary
5.1 Conclusion and recommendation
5.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY


CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.0 Introduction                             
     Religious violence has its roots deep in the history of Kaduna State. As a state, Kaduna came into being in 1987 and in the same year religious violence erupted. Historically, Kaduna was part of Northern region in the three (3) regional structures of 1954. Present day Kaduna was the capital of Northern region when Nigeria was restructured into twelve (12) State on 27th May 1967. It was named North Central State and later changed to Kaduna State in 1976. The old Kaduna had two provinces, Katsina and Zaria. On 23rd September, 1987 the state was split into two, Katsina province became a new state named Katsina state, while Zaria retained the name Kaduna.1 The name Kaduna is derived from the Hausa word “KADA” meaning crocodile, and Kaduna is the plural word for crocodile. Main towns in Kaduna are Kaduna (city capital), Zaria, Kagoro, Kafachan, Kachia and Zonkwa. Kaduna State consist of twenty-three (23) different local government areas and there are: Birnin Gwari, Chikun, Giwa, Igabi, Ikara, Jaba, Jema'a, Kachia, Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Kagarko, Kajuru, Kaura, Kauru, Kubau, Kudan, Lere, Makarfi, Sabon Gari, Sanga, Soba, Zangon Kataf and Zaria Local Government Areas. There are fifty-seven (57) different langue spoken in Kaduna which includes
Acipa in  Eastern Birnin Gwari LGA, Amo in Saminaka LGA, Ashe Kachia in LGA, Aten in Jema'a LGA, Atsam in Kachia LGA, Ayu in Jema'a LGA, Bacama in Northeast of Kaduna town, Begbere-Ejar in Kachia LGA, Berom in Jema'a LGA, Bina in Saminaka LGA, Cinda-Regi-Tiyal in Birnin Gwari LGA, Cori in Jema'a LGA, Doka in Kachia LGA, Dungu in Saminaka LGA, Gbagyi in Kachia LGA, Gbari Gbiri-Niragu in Saminaka LGA, Gwandara in Kaduna State, Kachia LGA, Ham in Kachia and Jema'a LGA's, Hausa Idon in Kachia LGA, Idun in Jema'a LGA, Iku-Gora-Ankwa in Kachia LGA, Ikulu in Kachia LGA, Irigwe in Saminaka LGA, Izere in Jema'a LGA, Jere in Saminaka LGA, Jju in Kachia and Jema'a LGA's, Kadara in Kachia LGA, Kagoma in Jema'a LGA, Kaivi in Saminaka LGA, Kamantan in Kachia LGA, Kaningkon-Nindem in Jema'a LGA, Kanufi in Jema'a LGA, Kinuku in Saminaka LGA, Kono in Saminaka LGA, Kurama in Saminaka and Ikara LGA's, Kuturmi in Kachia LGA, Mada in Jema'a LGA, Mala in Saminaka LGA, Nandu-Tari in Jema'a LGA, Ningye in Jema'a LGA, Ninzam in Jema'a LGA, Nkwak in Birnin Gwari LGA, Numana-Nunku-Gwantu-Numbu in Jema'a LGA, Piti in Saminaka LGA, Pongu Small Numbers In Kaduna Town, Ruma in Saminaka LGA, Shamang in Kachia and Jama'a LGAs, Shama-Sambuga in Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA, Sheni in Saminaka LGA, Surubu in Saminaka LGA, Tumi in Saminaka LGA, Tyap in Kachia, Saminaka, and Jema'a LGA's, Vono in Saminaka LGA, Yeskwa in Jema'a LGA, Zhire in Kachia And Jama'a LGA, but Gbari and Hausa are the major ones.2
     The issue of religious violence gained ascendancy and became aggravated in Kaduna State after the state was created in 1987. Religious violence in Kaduna State began in 1987 when there was a clash between Muslim and Christian Students during the observation of the annual evangelical week of fellowship of Christian Students (FCS). The violence started at the College of Education in Kafanchan and later spread to Zaria, Kaduna and Katsina.3 Between 1988 and 2011, there were several cases of religious clashes in Kaduna State in which over 50,000 lives were lost. Over one million people were internally displaced and billions of naira lost.4 The persistence of this crisis ignites scholarly interrogation. This research work therefore reconstructs the history of religious violence in Kaduna State. From 1987 up to 2011 several religious violence occurred in the State, most of these violence emerged from disagreements either between students or youths in the society and later exploded to clashes between Christians and Muslims in the State leading to losses in lives and property. In these violence, the youth actively take part or perpetrate most of them but that is not to say that some these violence do not have sponsors but what is still not clear even till date is who these sponsors are. 


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