THE IMPACTS OF SURFACE TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT TO TOURISM GROWTH (Case study of roads in Cameroon)

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ABSTRACT
Cameroon is often referred to as Africa in miniature. Endowed with abundant touristic potential but not a popular tourist’s destination. In this nation can be found almost every touristic attraction that can be seen in all parts of Africa and others that can be found here and not elsewhere. It has three climate zones to feed the tourist tastes which is scarcely to be anywhere in Africa This splendid destination Cameroon has attractions like waterfalls, lakes, mountains, natural beaches, game parks, botanical and zoological gardens and cultural groups with diverse cultures and dishes to satisfy the tourist’s appetite.

In this thesis the main aim was to research the state of surface transport in Cameroon and to propose solutions that can help enhance significant growth in tourism and bring spillover effects on the economy of Cameroon. The thesis also had as purpose, to reveal the significant role that the development and construction of roads in road network has for it to forge a major twist towards tourism growth. The objective of this work was therefore to promote surface transport development as a focal point in attaining sustainable tourism growth. Such development has impacts on the living standards of the inhabitants as well as the economy as a whole.

Key words

Attractions, development, impacts, interconnectivity, road links, sustainable tourism, tourism potentials, transport

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.         INTRODUCTION

2.  ROAD TRANSPORT IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
            2.1       Mutuality between Road Transport and Tourism Development
                        2.1.1 Cameroon: Road Distribution
            2.2       Road Interconnectivity to other modes of transportation
                        2.2.1    Inter-road Connectivity
                        2.2.2    Connection to Airports
                        2.2.3    Connection to Railway Stations
                        2.2.4    Connections to Sea and River ports
            2.3       Cameroons Strategic Position and Road Links to Neighbor Countries
            2.4       The Trans-African Highway
            2.5       Road Transport Quality and Quantity
            2.6       Surface Transport modes and trends
            2.7       Tourism and Road Transport Modeling
                        2.7.1. Highway Assignment Modeling
                        2.7.2    Traffic Forecast in Highway Assignment Models
                        2.7.3    Transport and Mode Choice Models

3.  CAMEROON ROAD NETWORK AND FLOWS
            3.1       Road Network Patterns
                        3.1.1    Circuit Network
                        3.1.2    Centre/Hierarchy Network
                        3.1.3    Paul Reveres Ride and Branching Networks
            3.2       Road and Automobile Transport
            3.3       Road Factors that Scares Tourists from Cameroon
            3.4       Cameroons Need for Road Modeling
            3.5       Rail lines Distribution
            3.6       Accessibility to Opportunities

4.  TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE ROLE IN TOURISM GROWTH
            4.1       Alternative Transport Facilities
            4.2       Transport Fares and Services
            4.3       Effectiveness of Transport Infrastructure
            4.4       The Problem of Road Maintenance in Cameroon
            4.5       Road Infrastructure Development Impacts to Tourism Growth
                        4.5.1    Economic Impact
                        4.5.2    Socio-Cultural impacts

5.         THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS
            5.1       Aim of Research
5.2       The Research Problem
5.3       Qualitative Research
5.4       Validity and Reliability
5.5       Presentation of Research and Results
5.5.1    Interview with Transport Agent
5.5.2    Interview with Professional Driver in Cameroon
5.5.3    Analysis of Interviews and recommendations
6.  CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 1

APPENDIX 2


1. INTRODUCTION




Tourism has been seen as a major domain in most economies the world over. Identified as the fastest growing industry in the world, its global importance cannot be over emphasized. Surface transport is a major boost to this industry. Transport in tourism is helpful for mobility and increases the motif why people (tourists) move from one place to another. People’s interest for travel is doubling every day as innovations continue making travel easier and some might consider the modes as an attraction by itself. These factors have bridged the gap in distance and rendering the universe a global village. As a result, because tourism is a leisure activity that involves travel away from home, the marriage between transport and tourism has become inseparable.


In this research work, the importance of surface transport and road transport in particular are in the center of the role transportation has for tourism growth and development. Focus is also put on the vitality of road development as an asset to invite tourists through smooth trips to the different localities where the attractions in a destination are situated. The closeness of transport and tourism are also shown to be reasonably symbiotic through the awareness that the growth of tourism and increase inbound tourism can stimulate the development of roads that at one point may not be to ease mobility, but for construction of roads which then stand as attractions by itself.



Cameroon is a developing country with a lot of touristic potentials aspiring to become an emergent economy by 2035 and one way of attaining this goal is through increase in tourists’ activity. This nation is endowed with enormous potentials that range from diverse climatic conditions to a rich embroidery of historical and cultural heritage and natural attractions. Nicknamed as “Africa in miniature”, this small triangle called Cameroon has above 250 ethnic groups with an almost same amount of dialects and cultures that can be used to sell diversity of interest to tourists. It also stands out single as being a destination with one of the highest variety of dishes in the world, these blessings could be used to benefit and raise tourists’ awareness with all its accrued advantages to raise the living standards of Cameroonians. Cameroon lies along the west coast of central and West Africa along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.

Due to all the factors enumerated earlier, the country has a solid foundation for growth as a tourist destination. Realizing that tourism is a major domain in most economies across the world and as the fastest growing industry is a pointer that this research tries to focus on. Thus the need for surface transports infrastructure development as a prerequisite for tourism growth and development. The research tries to authenticate Surface transport in general and road transport in particular, to playing a very crucial role to tourism travel and development in the destinations. Accessibility to localities and attractions within a destination are therefore of intense interest to visitors and is made possible through good roads, links and interconnection systems.



The research therefore explores the reasons for stagnancy of tourism growth and development in Cameroon. In this document the researcher tries to point out that it is as a result of poor surface transport systems in general and absence of good road infrastructure in particular that there is this stagnancy. In the research he tries to come up with a report that can help turn attention to this important sector (tourism) that is being neglected. It is aimed at creating awareness for the need and role that the development of a good surface transport network system can have for tourism and the economy of Cameroon as a whole. Its objective is therefore to show that the existence of abundant touristic attractions, without an adequate good transport network to link and interconnect them will only keep them dormant and not sell to tourists...

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