THE IMPACTS OF EVENT TOURISM ON HOST COMMUNITIES (Case Study: Northwest region of Cameroon)

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ABSTRACT
Tourism is one form of business which brings much economic growth and development to its host communities. It is also known to have many benefits to the host communities and this can be seen in the creation of new jobs, construction of infrastructure and the creation of social amenities in the host region. Concerning the cultural aspect of growth, tourism has made the communities to maintain their culture or else the communities will have nothing to exhibit as their cultural potentials. Tourism has therefore motivated the communities to keep their culture sustainable from generation to generation. Furthermore tourism has come in as a peace maker between the environments, animals and the people. Most environments are being protected and the endangered species of animals are being protected in our communities.

This research was carried out with the aim of identifying the impacts of event tourism on the host communities using North-West Region of Cameroon (NWR) as a case study and the objectives to find how the negative impacts could be changed into positive impacts.

The method used by the writer was practice based, and a semi-structured interview was conducted. Professionals and non-professionals in the sector of event tourism in northwest region of Cameroon were interviewed and their responses and thoughts were used as the core of the writer´s analysis from which findings were extracted and suggestions were made.

The result gotten from this study indicated that although event tourism is good for developing a community, it can also cause havoc (negative impacts to the host community) if both the tourists and the communicants are not well educated about good morals in the host community.

Key words

Tourism, destination, event tourism, host communities, impacts, North-west Region of Cameroon


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

1 INTRODUCTION

2 THE EVENT TOURISM
2.1 The main bodies of the event industry
2.1.1 Event venues
2.1.2 Event managements
2.1.3 External regulatory bodies
2.2 Types of events
2.2.2 Mega events
2.2.3 Hallmark events
2.3 Typology of planned events
2.3.1 Festivals
2.3.2 Business events
2.3.3 Art events
2.3.4 Stakeholder

3 SUSTAINABILITIES OF TOURISM ATTRACTIONS
3.1 Some challenges facing the growth of tourism in both developed and underdeveloped world

4 THE VIEW OF CAMEROON AND THE NORTHWEST REGION AS A CASE STUDY
4.1 The location of northwest region of Cameroon
4.2 Some attractions in the Northwest region of Cameroon
4.2.1 Day 1 of Lela festival
4.2.2 Day 2 of Lela festival
4.2.3 Day3
4.2.4 Day 4
4.2.5 Analysis of Lela festival
4.3 Medumba Arts and craft festivals
4.3.1THE NGUEMBA ANNUAL FESTIVALS
4.3.2 Kom cultural and art event festival

5 THE IMPACTS OF EVENT TOURISM ON THE HOST COMMUNITIES
5.1 Economic impacts
5.2 Socio-cultural impacts
5.3 Environmental impacts

6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES AND ANALYSES
6.1Quantitative research method
6.2 Qualitative research method
6.3 Semi structural interview
6.3 Presenting the result of the research
6.6. FINDINGS
6.7 Reliability and validity

7 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
7.1 Recommendations
7.2 CONCLUSIONS
References
Appendix


1 INTRODUCTION



Tourism is the movement of people from one place to the other for a short or a long time stay, in places outside their usual dwelling place for not more than one year, spending nights in hotels, motels, inns, cottages. Tourism is further defined as a temporary movement of people to destinations out of their normal places of residence or work. There are activities involved during their stay in these places and facilities put in place to cater for their needs. (Cooper,Fletcher,Fyall,Gilbert,&Wanhill 2008.5.).There are different reasons why people travel. These reasons can be for leisure, business or educational purposes. Tourism has existed for as long as human beings have existed. It is a highly competitive industry .The impacts of event tourism on the host communities has been a major issue which calls for attention if event tourism must continue in the future. So, it is necessary to identify the impacts and maintain or improve the advantages, and to eradicate or reduce the disadvantages.

The aim of this thesis is to make the people living in the communities to understand the impacts of event tourism on the host community. These impacts will be identified and grouped into two phases which are positive phase and the negative phase and how they affect a given host community. The objective of this research work is to study how the impacts of tourism affect a given community and solutions shall be suggested in order for this community to free of any problem or bad phase of tourism. These suggested solutions when applied will reduce or eradicate the identified problems.

2 THE EVENT TOURISM

Event tourism can be defined as the gathering of people with the aim to celebrate, entertain, marketing, or union. Getz in his book (1997, 4) stated that events are temporary occurrences, either called for or not, and they often have a definite time which is usually made or announced for planned events. Event tourism is one of the most active forms of tourism since people are creating gathering with various forms like festivals, celebrations which are pulling factor to visitors. Nowadays event tourism is a major role in tourists’ lives as there has been increased in leisure, and money is been paid to workers for holidays and this has contributed to the growth of public events, celebration and entertainment in the host communities. Tourism has continuous impacts on our lives and the tourism activities with the host communities, region or country (Cooker et al.2008, 14).

Analyzing these definitions by Getz and Cooker, Getz´s idea is based mostly on the events which are planned but nothing has been mentioned about the impacts of the planned events. On the other hand Cooker´s idea is emphasized on the impacts of event tourism on our lives and its interaction with the host communities, region or country as a whole. Thus Cooker´s definition is in line with research work, the impacts of event tourism on the host´s communities.

2.1 The main bodies of the event industry

2.1.1 Event venues


Event venues are vital in the event industry. In the absence of event venue in event industry, then no event is hosted. Event venue management is one of the most important icons of the whole event management process as it is also part of the marketing of the event venue. Specific event venues exist and they bring more income to the event management when they give out their facilities on hire agreement to serve and corporate events of all sorts like theaters, universities, galleries and museums. Some event venues...

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