STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT
Nigeria is a rich country when it comes to tourism because, the country is endowed with all it takes to be a tourists’ destination. The country’s tourism potentials range from natural, man-made, and cultural attractions but they lacks management, enhancing and supporting infra-structure around the attractions for easy access and development. These tourism potentials are still much in their natural form awaiting interested investors. Tourism today, it is a big market and it has contributed greatly to the world economy. It is a big surprise that country like Nigeria has not ceased the opportunities in tourism development. Nigeria is a mono-economy and her economy revenue comes majorly from the crude oil. A country of over 170 million population, need to spread her pentacles in the area of income generation. It is high time for the country to diversify her economy for more economic revenue generation and tourism is seen as one of the best alternative.

The focus of this bachelor's thesis is mainly on how Nigeria tourism industry can be improved and sustained. Nigeria tourism sector need rescue, in terms of development, promotion, management and sustainability. To achieve the objective of this paper, the following ques-tions will be ask; what are the necessary factors needed for the development and sustenance of tourism industry in Nigeria? what are the benefits of tourism to the development of Nige-ria?, what are the problems and challenges of tourism in Nigeria? And what are the ways of improving tourism in Nigeria? These questions formed the research area in this paper. Besides all these stated above, this paper will also take a glance on historical background of tourism in Nigeria, hindrance of tourism development and sustainability in Nigeria, institutional frame-work for sustainable tourism development in Nigeria, the government plans for devel-oping sustainable tourism in Nigeria, strategies for development and sustenance of tourism in Nigeria and tourism business opportunities in Nigeria.

The research for this paper was based on theoretical and empirical point of view. Interview, survey and existing literature are the sources of the data used in this paper. However, in oth-er to come out with a definite result on this paper, the data was coded, tabulated and inter-preted in a presentable format. Based on the result obtained from the research, it is obvious that there is hope for Nigeria tourism industry. Besides that, the research also outline the dangers of instability and government negligence on the matter concerning the development of tourism and also the benefits of encouraging, financing and supporting the tourism activi-ties in Nigeria. It is indeed advisable to note that the tourism industry is part of the develop-mental factors of any nation who takes its tourism industry very seriously.



TABLE OOF CONTENTS

1          Introduction
            1.1       Research Questions and Limitation of the Study
            1.2       Objective of the Study
            1.3       Significance of the Study and Research Hypotheses

2          Literature Review: Tourism Industry, Tourism Development and Sustainability
            2.1       Tourism
            2.2       Tourism Industry
            2.3       Tourism Development
            2.4       Sustainability
                        2.4.1    Economic Sustainability
                        2.4.2    Socio-cultural Sustainability
                        2.4.3    Environmental Sustainability

3          Strategic Development and Sustainability of Tourism in Nigeria
            3.1       Background of Tourism Development in Nigeria
            3.2       Hindrance of Tourism Development and Sustainability in Nigeria
            3.3       Institutional Frame-work for Sustainable Tourism Development in Nigeria
            3.4       The Government plans for Developing Sustainable Tourism in Nigeria
            3.5       Strategies for Development and sustenance of Tourism in Nigeria
            3.6       Tourism Business Opportunities in Nigeria

4          Tourist Attractions in Nigeria
            4.1       Natural attractions
            4.2       Man-made attractions
            4.3       Cultural attractions

5          Research Method
            5.1       Data Collection Procedure
            5.2       Survey Method and Study Sample
            5.3       Data Processing and Analysis
            5.4       Validity and Reliability

6          Empirical Analysis and Results
            6.1       Analyses of Results from Survey
            6.2       Analyses of Result from Interview

7          Suggestions and Recommendation

8          Conclusion

9          Critical Review
References
Figures
Tables
Appendices



1       Introduction
Tourism sector according to David Diaz Benavides (2001) is probably the only services sector that provides concrete and qualified trading opportunities for all nations, regardless of their level of development. According to him, the sector also provides an uneven distribution of benefits, which is threatening the social, economic and environmental sustainability of tour-ism in some developing countries (Benavides 2001). Tourism has become a major source of economic development and diversification for many developing countries. Tourism for Nigeria is yet to become a channel of employment creation, income generation and revenue mobili-zation for a country with over 170 million people. Although, the developed countries account for a higher proportion of global tourism, and many developing countries are beginning to take advantage of the huge opportunities offered by tourism. (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012)

Nevertheless, this is only possible among the countries that have all it takes to promote tour-ism. The huge advantages in tourism can be achieve with the availability of natural, man-made, cultural, and enhancing infrastructure supporting the growth and development of tour-ism in the country. Most developing countries like Nigeria for example practise mono-economy, which means the country generate bulk of her foreign exchange from a particular economic product “crude oil”. However, many of these countries are beginning to see the importance of tourism and the needs for economic diversification. Nigeria has always being known as a petroleum exporting country, she is one of the largest producers of petroleum. And the country’s main stay is crude oil. However, the country has decided to join the trial to diversify her economy from the production of crude oil in other to create more employment opportunities and to generate more foreign income. (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012)

Nigeria is a rich country when it comes to tourism because, the country is blessed with all it takes to be a tourists’ destination. The country’s tourism potentials range from natural, man-made, and cultural attractions but they lacks management, enhancing and supporting infra-structure around the attractions for easy access and development. However, this area is the business potential in the country now. Many benefits have been set out for local and foreign investors that believe in the industry (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012). Sustainable tourism concept is used to harmonize and reconcile issues of intergenerational equity, the goals of economic growth, environmental protection, and justice. It recognizes the need for fairness between local individuals and groups, and between hosts and guests (Mbaiwa 2005).

Africa just like other continents of the world is a location for tourism and travelling. The con-tinent is not left out in the technique of raising revenue through tourism. Africa has contin-ued to improve on tourism like other continents.According to the United Nation World Tour-ism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts, it is stated that international tourist arrivals will experience an increase of 3% to 4% in 2013, this forecast is so much in line with its 2030 long term forecast: +3.8% a year on average between 2010 and 2020.This report is confirmed by the UNWTO Confidence Index. This report was Compiled among over 300 experts worldwide, the Index shows that prospects for 2013 are similar to the evaluation of last year 124 points for 2013 against 122 for 2012. Which in turns implies that by region, prospects for 2013 are much more stronger than that of 2012, for Asia and the Pacific +5% to +6%, followed by Africa +4% to +6%, the Americas +3% to +4%, Europe +2% to +3% and the Middle East 0% to +5%(UNWTO 2013).

International tourism, measured by the number of arrivals of foreign tourists in a country, grew by 4%.

United Nations World Tourism Organization...


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