SIGNAL PROCESSING OF INFORMATION FOR DIGITAL BROADCASTING (Case Study: Nigeria and Kenya)

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ABSTRACT
Digital migration was agreed in the year 2006 by all the member nations of the ITU to ensure that all member countries switched from the analogue to the modern digital mode. The modern digital mode would take advantage of the latest technological advancements in telecommunication to provide more value with more content, more reliable content and multiple channels for customers to choose. The aim of this thesis is to assess the status of digital migration and policy implications.


Nigeria is one of the countries that is a signatory to the ITU and which has been in the process of moving from analog broadcasting to the digital broadcasting. Many challenges have been faced. Various service providers from different international companies have taken advantage of these policies and standards to expand their market share and to act as an option for the customers in Nigeria. This thesis discusses the digital migration, identifying the various challenges and opportunities that arise and also discussing the new broadcasting model that will come out of it.


TABLE OF CONTENT

1 INTRODUCTION

2 LITERATURE REVIEW
            2.1 Aspect of signal processing
            2.2 Analogue versus Digital Signal Processing
            2.3 Properties of Digital vs Analog Signals
            2.4 Differences in Usage in Equipment
            2.5 Comparison of Analogue vs Digital Quality
            2.6 Differences in Applications
            2.7 Characteristics of Digital Broadcasting
            2.8 Satellite Digital Broadcasting
                        2.8.1    The Gains of Digital Broadcasting
            2.9 The Challenges of Digitization in Nigeria

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
            3.1 System Analysis
                        3.1.1 Analysis of the Existing System
                        3.1.2 Proposed System
                        3.1.3 Advantages of the Proposed System
            3.2 Feasibility Study
                        3.2.1 Behavioral achievability Economic Feasibility
                        3.2.2 Technical Feasibility
                        3.2.3 Behavioral Feasibility

4 IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION
            4.1 Broadcast Systems
            4.2 Signal Flow in a Digital Broadcasting Transmitter and Receiver System
            4.3 Broadcast Transmission Standards
                        The Satellite Standard
            4.4 Compression Standards
                        4.4.1 The Video Compression Challenge
                        4.4.2 Compression Trade-offs
                        4.4.3 Standards Bodies
                        4.4.4 MPEG
            4.5 Multiplexing
                        4.5.1 Types of Multiplexing
                        4.5.2 Use of Multiplexing in Digital Broadcasting
            4.6 Channel Coding
            4.7 Modulation
                        4.7.1 Digital Modulation
                        4.7.2 Fundamental digital modulation methods
            4.8 Digital Terrestrial Systems
            4.9 Signal Broadcast in the Nta
                        4.9.1 Startimes
                        4.9.2 Starsat

5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
5.4 Suggestion(s) for future Research
REFERENCES


1   INTRODUCTION


Television transmission dynamics has been seen over the years. This has been evident as it moved from monochrome to color transmission. In Digital Television, which is a technology the NTA is transitioning into so as to achieve digital broadcast, the transmission of audio and video is through digital signals. The reason as to why this is called digital transmission is due to its way of transmission. DTV is a technology that is categorized as advanced in the modern world. It has brought remarkable transformation in television viewing. This has led to the analog method being obsolete.

Terrestrial implementation of DTV technology employs aerial broadcasts to an aerial of a TV. DTH is television programming delivered by an antenna that is outdoor. Antenna is always a parabolic mirror referred to as a satellite dish, and as far as household usage is concerned, a satellite receiver can be in the style of external set-box developed as a Television set box. The TV tuners are also available as a cards and USB sticks that can be fixed on PCs. TV offers a broad range of services and channels. In most cases, these areas are not serviced by terrestrial or connected networks. Via frequency cable television can provide TV programs to consumers through transmissions called radio frequency.

The remote server can do the intelligence. In advanced TVs, there will be a return channel to demand information from a remote server. This may be satellite using existing phone line or link utilizing its system and so forth. These sorts of frameworks are open structures yet there are others which are shut frameworks. In shut frameworks, there are telecast modules on a merry go round, and set-up box catches a module and holds it for connection.


There are two sorts of advanced television, Standard definition (SD) and High definition (HD). Standard definition is a lower type of digital television. The aspect proportion for SD television is 4:3, which is all the more square-like in nature.
High definition is the highest type of advanced television. The aspect proportion for HD is 16:9, which is rectangular like a theater film screen. That is the reason when watching HD pictures on a simple or SDTV we see dark bars on the top and base of the screen.

Contending variations of digital terrestrial TV innovation are utilized over. Advanced Television Standards Committee is the one used as a part of North America and South Korea, advancement from the analogue National Television Standards Committee standard NTSC. ISDB-T is utilized as a part of Japan. With a variety of it utilized as a part of Brazil, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador and most as of late Costa Rica and Paraguay, while DVB-T is the most pervasive, covering Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Colombia, Uruguay and a few nations of Africa. DMB-T/H is China's standard. Whatever is left of the world remains is undecided, numerous assessing different models. ISDB-T is fundamentally the same to DVB-T and can share front-end collector and demodulator segments. What's more, NTA Startimes is utilizing DVB-T2 that has numerous points of interest over the first form (DVB-T).

DTV is transmitted on radio frequencies through the wireless transmissions that are like standard simple TV, with the essential distinction being the utilization of multiplex transmitters to permit gathering of various channels on a solitary recurrence extent, (for example, a UHF or VHF channel).


The measure of information that can be transmitted (and in this manner the quantity of channels) is straightforwardly influenced by the tweak strategy for the channel. The adjustment strategy in DVB-T2 is COFDM with either 64 or 16 states Quadrature Sufficiency Tweak (QAM). All in all a 64QAM channel is equipped for transmitting a more prominent piece rate, however, is more vulnerable to obstruction. 16 and 64QAM heavenly bodies can be consolidated in a solitary multiplex, giving a controllable corruption to more vital System streams. This is called various leveled tweak. New advancements in pressure have brought about the MPEG-4/AVC standard which empowers three top quality administrations to be coded into a 24 Mbit/s European physical transmission channel.

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