FIBER OPTICS: SAFETY MEASURES ON OIL & GAS PIPELINE MONITORING IN LAGOS STATE REGION

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ABSTRACT
The objective of this thesis work is to research and implement the use of an opti-cal communication system (fiber optics) as a safe and reliable monitoring system for the oil and gas pipeline industry in Lagos region of Nigeria. These optical fiber cables are laid parallel to oil and gas buried pipelines to monitor and indicate ad-vanced warning in real time situation once leakages occur in these pipelines, thereby allowing pipeline operators to take immediate and strategic actions to re-solve the problem.

This integrity and performance of oil and gas pipeline is essential to the smooth operations expected from regulatory authorities. Leakage in pipelines may be as a result of mechanical failure (cracks, corrosion, and welded joint failure) or illegal tampering (drilling, bursting, hot tapping) which could lead to spillage of the product, environmental pollution or even loss of lives, if not adequately addressed in time.

As a result of implementation of the project, the use of optical communication system (temperature point sensor) was not sustainable due to the fact that several point sensors has to be considered for monitoring the pipelines. The sensor was used to monitor abnormal temperature changes around the pipeline and thereby giving warnings, through the monitoring software in real time situation. Such monitoring software enabled me to setup important measurement parameters and observe the monitoring processes. Also, the possibility to use distributed sensor where entire cable length serves as linear sensors was considered for a future pro-ject.


Finally, knowledge acquired in this project work enhances my understanding of the use of Information technology in the field of oil and gas pipeline industry.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

1 INTRODUCTION
2   BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
            2.1 Jami Energy Limited

3 FIBER OPTICS DESIGN
            3.1 Historical Perspective of Optical Communications
            3.2 Why the Use of Fiber Optics in Oil and Gas Pipeline
            3.3 Fundamental of Fiber Optics
                        3.3.1 Single-mode (SM) Fiber
                        3.3.2 Multimode (MM) Fiber
            3.4 Communication Systems of Fiber Optics
            3.5 Fiber Optics Monitoring Device
            3.6 Monitoring System of Fiber Optics
            3.7 Basic Principles of Fiber Optics Sensor System
            3.8 Classification of Fiber Optics Sensors
            3.9 Types of Fiber Optics
            3.10 Distributed Fiber Optics Sensors

4 PIPELINE MONITORING
            4.1 Fundamentals of Pipeline
            4.2 Classification of Pipeline
                        4.2.1 Gathering Pipelines
                        4.2.2 Transportation Pipeline
                        4.2.3 Distribution Pipeline
                        4.2.4 Internal Pipelines
            4.3 Integrity and Testing of Pipeline
                        4.3.1 Pipeline Design and Construction
                        4.3.2 Pipeline Monitoring
                        4.3.3 Pipeline Inspection and Maintenance
            4.4 Preventive Measures on Pipeline Failures
                        4.4.1 Welding
                        4.4.2 Hydrostatic Test
                        4.4.3 Backfilling of Excavated Pipeline Route
            4.5 Regulatory Authorities of Pipeline

5 IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT
            5.1 Purpose of Implementation
            5.2 Infrared Radiation of Measuring Material
            5.3 Emissivity (ε) Measuring Material
                        5.3.1 Emissivity
                        5.3.2 Reflectivity
                        5.3.3 Transmissivity
            5.4 Flame Temperature of Pipeline Fluid
                        5.4.1 Basics of Adiabatic Flame Temperature
            5.5 Lists of Instrumentation and Equipment
            5.6 Implementation Plan and Overview
            5.7 Installation and Configuration of Monitoring Software

6 TEST RESULT
            6.1 Testing the Ambient Temperature
            6.2 Testing the Pipeline Temperature
                        6.2.1 Display LED Warning Signal
            6.3 Test summary of Pipeline Temperature

7 CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES


1    INTRODUCTION

Nigeria has been an oil producing country since 1960, and also with an enormous gas reserve estimated at 190 trillion cubic feet (5 trillion cubic meter) /15/, of which only a small fraction are still used. In fact our natural gas has been flared to the atmosphere. However, the country through the “Nigerian Gas Master Plan” wants to effectively utilize and expand the gas infrastructure so as to have positive effects to the economy (commercial exploitation and management of the gas sec-tor). So, the government started planning, some years ago to channel the natural gas to be domesticated by residential and industrial areas for use as energy sources – cooking, gas ovens, gas boilers, furnace, water heaters – as is obtained in developed countries e.g. United States of America and United Kingdom /3, 12/.

As the country projects itself for this illustrious master plan in the oil and gas in-dustry and it has positive effects on the economic status, one must take cogni-zance of the effects of the expansive engineering projects involved and have an effective, reliable monitoring system. Due to the volatile nature of oil & gas pipe-lines in these various engineering projects, there must be an effective monitoring system which not only suits these pipelines but also advanced technologies must be applied also.

As the world of Information Technology becomes more advanced, the use of opti-cal communication (fiber optics) and its suitability to oil & gas pipeline monitor-ing system has become a possibility.


The integrity and performance of oil and gas pipeline is essential to the smooth operations expected from regulatory authorities. The pipeline safety, as it con-cerns regulatory authorities, is the safety mechanism on pipelines so as to protect the public, environment and even pipeline workers from any form of loss. Such safety mechanism is the use of fiber optics as a safe way to monitor these highly flammable fluids inside the pipelines. However, due to advanced optical commu-nication systems employed in new technologies in fiber optics, I propose in my thesis work the use of fiber optic sensors (optoelectronic device) which run along these pipelines (outside and close to the pipelines), thereby giving an advanced warning in real time situation and allowing pipeline operators to take immediate and strategic actions so as to prevent loss of lives and properties.

Thus, this thesis project, will study the workings and suitability of optical com-munications (fiber optics) to be used in these pipelines, understand these pipelines integrity itself and demonstrate in a test environment the parameter(s) critical to these monitoring systems.

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This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


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