ENHANCING URBAN ENERGY SECURITY THROUGH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLUTIONS Case Study- Douala, Cameroon

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ABSTRACT

The Purpose of this research is to examine the potentials of renewable energy (RE) and to enhance energy security (ES) within the present Douala metropolis. The production and use of renewable energy has been identified as part of the solution to be adopted and to improve the current energy crisis, and as a necessary inclusive contrivance towards creating a sustainable city. Most cities in Cameroon are faced with energy problem. The constant energy shortage has result in the deterioration of Douala urban environment. The main focus of this thesis is to create a sustainable Douala city by utilizing the energy potentials identified.

Urban population growth is unavoidable around the world. Therefore, the demand and supply of energy use will defiantly increase. An explicit and proactive method to enhance the preserved concept to energy security (ES) is suggested in this thesis. By applying, producing, and maintaining such phenomenon, this will benefit the Douala environment and its urban slums.

In order to achieve this, the present energy production and management methods were analysed; three Interviews were carried out, books, articles, journals and online sources were examined. Also, a specific indicator such as technology was identified to examine the vulnerability and less effectiveness to energy security (ES). Thus, measuring the current energy situation within this predefined urban area, the indicators measure a very poor urban energy security (ES). Herein, some solutions were proposed which constituted the recommendations for this study.


Key Words: Renewable Energy (RE), Energy Security (ES), Urban Energy (UE), Greenhouse Gas (GHG)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Purpose of this thesis
1.3 Research questions and purpose
1.4 Research phases
1.5 Significance of the Studies and Limitations

CHAPTER TWO
2.  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1. Energy Framework and Energy Policy in Cameroon
2.2. Over view of urban energy security through renewable energy solutions.
2.3. Geographical Location and Percentage Energy Sources in Cameroon
2.4. Status quo, energy demand and potentials of renewable energy in Cameroon
2.5. Ecosystem, geography and economics of Douala
2.6. Douala Pattern of energy use
2.7. Legislation, policy and regulation guiding use in Douala

CHAPTER THREE
3. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
3.1. Case Study – Douala Cameroon
3.2. Renewable energy potentials
3.3. Scenarios to enhance renewable energy in Douala
3.4. Carbon footprint in Douala urban Area
3.5. Enhancing energy security and address climate change in Douala
3.6. Renewable energy, a resilient mechanism for Douala urban area

CHAPTER FOUR
4. RESULTS
4.1.Interviews
4.2. Description of analysis Methods
4.3.Importance of energy security in Douala
4.4. Challenges related to energy security in Douala urban area

CHAPTER FIVE
5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
5.1. Conclusion
5.2. Recommendations
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

1.                                INTRODUCTION

In developing nations nowadays, urban energy security is not just essential for enhancing a good quality of life for the urban dwellers, this also increases the effects of creating sustainable urban development and poverty eradication within the urban areas. Nowadays, energy crisis is subjected to climate change and non-sustainable future which also causes degradation of our environment and makes it vulnerable. One of the most challenging task in recent urban areas is the comparative evaluation of energy security and climate change alongside modern approaches and policies which actually occurs under certain conditions of socio-economic and demographical change.


This piece of work proves that, urban energy security, if managed, planned and implemented well, creates an essential benefit for urban dwellers and this aspect will enhance the day to day life of people and the environment. People have come to understand that all these factors together with the protection of our environment make nature liveable, healthier and above all sustainable. Within the twenty-first century, sustainability has become the main challenge in cities and arguable the major focus in present-day science and research. (Lakala & Vehmas 2011)


Urbanization is seen as an important universal inclination regarding energy crisis as urban areas are the world’s most habitat places. Energy security and renewables thus play a critical role in providing valuable ecosystems within our ever-growing urban environments which in effect makes it sustainable.



Though this research basically focuses on urban energy security in a developing country, a brief over view on the development history of urban energy security in western countries will be mentioned. This is due to the fact that Cameroon anticipates in planning and regulating its guidelines in urban energy security. Hence it will be important to understand the main principle in energy security and its developmental principles from its origin.


Cities of today have to be competitive and at the same time sustainable. Looking at the concept of sustainability it is almost certain that most developing countries might get a bad reputation with regards to sustainability, renewable energy and energy security is convenience as often prioritized over environmental awareness. (Liveable Cities 2007)


The problem is not the lack of the necessary legislation, but rather the fact that the implementation thereof seems far more complex than anticipated. On the other hand, in some cases, it is often argued that a few developing countries are "over planning" in regards to energy and green spaces and are therefore wasting valuable land to be used for development.


The challenges and obstacles of achieving Energy security through renewable energy was regarded as an internal affair. But recently, research has shown that some of the major energy security challenges have become global. Stated by the executive director of IEA Maria Van der Hoeven, “energy security was seen primarily as a concern of industrialized countries”, but today “the challenge has become global”. The recent geopolitical instability and conflict in some of the world’s main oil and gas countries has been a global debate on energy security most especially in Eastern Europe, North Africa and West Africa regions. (Karel 2014)


During the 60s, energy security was engulfing just around oil which today the whole definition has changes in the last 40 years, since the creation of IEA. The whole concept of energy security has also change with respect to the working direction to achieve it changes. This has almost come to conclusion that, energy security has no unified solution as to handle it rather, each country should find its own solution as the challenges is now a global issue and thus needs new ways of exploring to develop a solid multilateral corporation. (Anthony 2009, 104)...

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