DEVELOPING COMPOSTING DRY TOILETS: A VITAL APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE SANITATION IN GHANA

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1   GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI)
1.2 Location and Size
1.3 Climate
1.4 Statement of the Problem
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
            1.5.1 Specific Research Objectives
            1.5.2 Research questions

2 LITERATURE REVIEW
            2.1 Definition of Concepts
            2.2 Green Growth and Developing Countries
            2.3 High Dependency and Adverse Effects of Water Closets
            2.4 Dry Sanitation with Reuse
            2.4.1 Advantages of Eco-san
            2.4.2 Disadvantages of Eco-san
            2.5 Sanitation status in Ghana
            2.6 Sanitation Policies in Ghana
            2.7 Sanitation developments
3 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKS
            3.1 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
            3.2 Sustainable Development Goals SDG’s
4 METHODOLOGY
            4.1 Research Design
            4.2 Sample and Sample Technique
            4.2.1 Sources of Data
            4.2.2 Data Collection Instrument
            4.2.3 Data Presentation and Analysis

5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

6 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
            6.1 Recommendations
            6.2 Conclusion

REFERENCE
APPENDIX
Interview Questions


1     GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1      Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI)
The Economics of Sanitation Initiatives is a program launched by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) to study the economic impacts of poor sanitation and the costs and benefits of improved sanitation options. The goal of the ESI is to provide concrete evidence for the need to increase investment in improved sanitation and to provide an improved evidence-base for efficient planning and implementation of sustainable sanitation and hygiene programs (WSP, n.d). Although there’s widespread recognition of the human and social handicaps from poor sanitation typically in developing countries its economic losses was not well recognized. The ESI study attempts to provide economic estimates and losses from the adverse effect of inadequate sanitation to including related losses on health (deaths and diseases), welfare and tourism (WSP, n.d). The infographics below shows a big gap in sanitation and the economic losses from a global inadequate sanitation.

Globally 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation representing 40 percent of the global population- in a simple breakdown there’s 1 in 3 persons who lacks access to toilet according to Water.org (n.d). Access to safe sanitation and clean water is a basic human rights that everyone is entitled to and must be available for use at all times of the day and night and must be hygienic the UNW-DPAC (2015) adds, however, significant proportion of the global population has no access to it. By ensuring adequate provision of safe sanitation and clean drinking water we not only impacting public health but contributing significantly to sustainable and socio-economic developments as well as promoting a healthy ecosystem (UNDESA, 2015).

According to the ESI and WHO publication ‘Global costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to reach the MDG target and universal coverage’ it is estimated that about $260 billion monetary value is lost every year due to lack of safe sanitation and water which is equivalent to a 1.5 percent of combined GDP of developing countries. The areas of the world with least access to improved sanitation include 69 percent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa and 62 percent of those living in south Asia (WSP, n.d). By addressing the Economics of Sanitation Initiatives the study observes the limitedness of funds to resolve global sanitation gap giving that annual aid of water and sanitation amounts to $8 billion dollars which is far short of a $1 trillion needed to resolve this crisis and maintain its long term (Water.org, n.d). On a positive side there’s a proof of increased investment in the sector has favorable socio-economic returns to households and society, contributing improved health, clean environment, dignity and quality of life among others. In addition estimates on economic returns is favorable- globally every $1 spent on improved sanitation returns $5.5 (WSP, n.d)

In the context of Ghana access to improved sanitation is a fundamental problem. In 2015 the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) program of the UNICEF reported that only 15 percentage of Ghana’s population have access to improved sanitation which is well short of the expected 54 percent planned for the Millennium Development Goals of 2015. Other report shows that 1 in 5 Ghanaians have no access to toilet and defecates in the open with a national average of 22.9 percent who engages in the act (UNICEF, 2015). According to same report there’s evidence of high disparities in sanitation between rural and urban regions. In the Upper East region only 3 percent uses unshared and improved sanitation and about 90 percent practices open defecation in the region.

Ghana has one of the fastest growing population in the world according to Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Africa, and its population growth continues to increase urbanization presenting huge sustainable and sanitation challenges...

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