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Title page
Table of content

1.1       Background
1.2       Problem Statement
1.3       Justification for the Study
1.4       Aims and Objectives

2.1 Sources of Water Supply
2.2       Properties of Water
2.3       Quality of Drinking Water and Drinking Water Quality Guideline
2.4       Water Pollution / Contamination
2.5       Water Treatment

3.1       Study Area
3.2       Study Design
3.3       Study Population
            3.3.1    Exclusion criteria
3.4       Sample Size Determination
3.5       Procedure
            3.5.1    PH
            3.5.2    Turbidity
            3.5.3    Colour
            3.5.4    Total dissolved solids
            3.5.5 Chlorides
            3.5.6 Residual chlorine
            3.5.7 Nitrates/Nitrite
            3.5.8 Fluorides
            3.5.9 Iron
            3.5.10 Faecal coliform and Total coliform counts
3.6       Data Collection Technique
3.7       Data Analysis
3.8       Limitation
3.9       Ethical Consideration

4.1       Background Characteristics of Respondents
4.2       Sources of Drinking Water
4.3       Accessibility and Availability of Drinking Water
4.4       Physical Quality of Drinking Water based on Perception
4.5       Association between Sources of Drinking Water and Educational Attainment of Respondents
4.6       Sanitary Conditions of the Wells
4.7       Laboratory Analysis of Drinking water
4.7.1 Laboratory Analysis of Physical Quality of Water
4.7.2 Chemical Quality of Water
4.7.3 Bacteriological Quality of Water
4.8       Analysis of Proxy Parameters
4.9       Methods of Treatment of Household Water

5.1       Discussion
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations


Water is an important ingredient for life and it is an effective vehicle for the transmission of diseases when contaminated. Therefore every responsive and responsible government of any country strive to make safe water available and accessible to its populace throughout the year.

The study aimed to assess the quality of drinking water in Bosso town of Niger state, Nigeria.

Forty samples of water from different sources ( Bosso pond, wells, borehole, tap and sachet water ) were analyzed for faecal coliform (Escherichia. coli), total coliform, PH, residual chlorine, total dissolved solids, turbidity, colour, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, iron, and fluorine using membrane filtration method, PH meter, HACH digital titrator, Total dissolved solids/Conductivity meter, and DR 2000 (HACH) spectrophotometer.

Selection of water samples was carried out using proportionate allocation, equal allocation, simple random sampling and systematic sampling methods depending on the stage.

Four hundred and twenty-two household heads were interviewed to determine their common sources of drinking water in dry and in raining seasons, perception on the physical quality (colour, odour and taste) of water and availability and accessibility of water. Selection of households to be interviewed was done using household selection grid, simple random sample and systematic sample methods.

Finally, all the one hundred and fifteen wells in Bosso were inspected to determine their sanitary condition based on WHO standard for improved (protected) well.

The study revealed that less than 30% of households had access to tap water within their residences.

Of all the wells inspected in Bosso town, only 20% (23) of the wells can be considered improved/ protected. There was high bacterial contamination of most (80%) of the water samples. The faecal coliform (Escherichia coli count) varies from 0 to 436 cfc/100ml.

Similarly, all treated water samples (tap and sachet) failed to the meet WHO guideline value for residual chlorine which is 0.5mg/l and above.

The study also showed that 33.3% and 11.1% of well water samples had nitrate (NO3) nitrite (NO2) contents above the guideline level respectively. All samples of water from other sources had nitrate and nitrite content within the recommended values.

Majority (93.75%) of the tap water samples met the WHO guideline for fluoride while 56.25% showed compliance for iron content.

The single water sample from borehole failed to meet the guideline value for both fluoride and iron.

Finally, the study showed that despite the high contamination of drinking water in Bosso town, only 30.1% of households treat their water before consumption.

There is an urgent need to improve on the quality of drinking water in Bosso town coupled with mass health education to the community on the dangers of contaminated water and importance of personal hygiene.



1.1         Background

Water is a common natural chemical substance containing two atoms of Hydrogen and an atom of Oxygen. Its common usage refers to liquid form, though has other forms: solid water- ice and gaseous forms - water vapour and steam.

Water is indispensable for life and socioeconomic development of any society. It is used in domestic activities (cooking, drinking, washing, bathing etc), agricultural activities (e.g irrigation, gardening), generation of power (hydroelectric power plants), running industries, recreational activities etc. It is very essential for human existence and sustenance of life. Water constitutes 60%-70% of the total body weight. A man can live for several days without food but will only survive for few days without water. Therefore, water is indispensable for normal physiological function of plants and animals. In spite of its importance in sustenance of live and livelihood, it is the major cause of morbidity and mortality because of limitations in access and quality.

The basic physiological requirement for drinking water has been estimated at about 2 litres per capita per day which is just enough for survival.World Health Organization (WHO) states that domestic water consumption of 30-35 liters per capita per day is the minimum requirement for maintaining good health 6. However, the amount of water required by individuals varies depending on climate, standard of living, habit of the people and even age and sex.

One factor that impinges more on the accessibility to enough quality drinking water is the distance of the source from house. This condition forces the individual most especially....

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