STUDIES ON THE IMPACT RESISTANCE OF CASHEW NUTSHELL POWDER AND CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLED POLYPROPYLENE

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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2       Research problem
1.3       Aim and objectives
1.4       Justification
1.5       Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Background of Literature
2.2 Components of Composite Material
2.2.1 Matrix
2.2.1.1Polypropylene
2.2.2    Polymerization
2.2.3    Properties
2.2.4    Applications
2.3       Reinforcements functions on polymer composite
2.3.1    Classification and types of fillers
2.3.2    Types of fillers
2.3.3 Physical properties, uses and health effects
2.3.4 Environmental impact
2.3.5 Classification of CaCO3
2.3.6 Uses of CaCO3 as filler
2.3.7    Cashew tree
2.3.8    Distribution
2.3.9    Constituents cashew
2.3.10 Polymers and polymer composites
2.3.11 Polymer composites modification
2.3.12 Types and components of polymer composites
2.3.13 Parameters affecting properties of composites
2.3.14 Applications, trends, and challenges of fillers
2.3.15 Compounding and mixing processes
2.4.1    Plasticizers
2.4.2 Stabilizers
2.4.3 Colourants
2.4.4 Flame retardants
2.5 Thermoplastics processing techniques
2.5.1    Extrusion
2.5.2    Types of extrusion
2.5.3    Moulding
2.5.4    Compression moulding
2.5.5    Injection moulding
2.5.6    Blow moulding
2.5.7    Reaction-injection moulding (RIM)
2.5.8    Rotational moulding
2.5.9    Calendaring
2.6.1    Mechanical properties of plastics
2.6.2    Hardness
2.6.3    Abrasion resistance
2.6.4    Compression set and flex fatigue resistance
2.6.5    Flex fatigue resistance
2.6.6    Tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus
2.6.7    Resilience
2.7       Morphological Characterisation of Composites
2.7.1    Spectroscopic tests
2.7.2    Microscopic techniques
2.7.3    Thermodynamic methods
2.7.4    X-ray diffraction (XRD)
2.7.5    Basics of crystallography
2.7.6    Production of X-rays
2.7.7    Bragg’s law and diffraction
2.7.8    Applications of XRD
2.7.9    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
2.7.10 Thermoforming/solid phase forming
2.8       Physical Method of Characterising Composites

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Materials
3.2       Apparatus Used
3.3       Equipment Used and their Sources
3.4       Preparation of Sample
3.4.1    Filler Preparation
3.4.2    Mixing of the Compound
3.5       Determination of Mechanical Properties of the Prepared Polypropylene Composites
3.5.1 Determination of Tensile strength
3.5.2 Determination of Hardness of the prepared composites
3.5.5 Determination of Impact Strength of the prepared samples
3.5.6 Determination of microstructure of the prepared composites byScanning Electron Microscopy
3.5.7 Determination of the crystallinity of the prepared composites by X-ray Diffraction
3.5.8 Determination of water absorption behaviour of composites

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.1 Result of Tensile Strength
4.2 Effect of Filler Loading on the Stress of the Composites Prepared
4.2 Result of Elongation at break
4.4 Result of Young’s Modulus
4.5 Impact strength results
4.6 Hardness Results
4.7 Sorption Result
4.7 Morphology Results

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
5.1 Structural Characterisation of Cashew Nutshell Powder
5.2 Tensile Strength
5.3 The impact strength
5.4 Hardness
5.5 Statistical Analysis of Impact Strength
5.6 Effects of modification of unfilled and filled PP, PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP Composites on equilibrium sorption
5.6.4 Morphological studies on the PP, PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP composites
5.6.5 Structural Characterisation of the Polypropylene Composites prepared

CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Summary of Results
6.3 Conclusion
6.3 Recommendations
REFERENCES:
APPENDIX



ABSTRACT

Mechanical and morphological properties of pure polypropylene (PP) polypropylene/calcium carbonate (PP/CaCO3) and polypropylene/cashew nutshell powder (PP/CNSP)are reported in this work. The composites were prepared by compression moulding technique. The compressed moulded articles that is the PP, (PP/CaCO3) and (PP/CNSP) of different compositions (10/90, 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20) were characterised for mechanical properties, water absorption capacity, structural characterisation and morphological arrangements. Comparative studies was made on the mechanical properties of the pure polypropylene (PP), polypropylene/calcium carbonate (PP/CaCO3) and polypropylene/cashew nutshell powder (PP/CNSP). Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young‟s modulus and percentage elongation at break, Hardness behaviour and Impact resistance of both PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP composites increased with increment of filler weight content (10-50g). It was noted that the specimen samples of ratio50/40 PP/CaCO3 and PP/CNSP had the highest tensile strength, when compared with other sample. These specimens could bear loads of 1075N and 468N with extensions of 4.44mm and 6.12mm respectively. Decrease in the mechanical properties were noted on continuous addition of both fillers, with drastic reduction of the mechanical properties at (70g and 80g) fillers weight except hardness that slightly increased at all the filler loading (10-80g). The surface sorption characteristics of calcium carbonate and cashew nutshell powder have been investigated and the highest percentage was recorded at 20/80 of PP/CNSP (100%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that, both 60/40 PP/CaCO3, PP/CNSP and 50/50 PP/CaCO3, PP/CNSP are completely compatible at which there are no phases that are grossly separated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that, the incorporation of the two fillers into the neat polypropylene decreased the crystallinity of the polypropylene and the crystallinity decreases with increasing filler‟s loading.





CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background of the Study

Particle reinforced plastics composites (PRPCs) are composites to which fillers (discrete particles) have been added to modify or improve the properties of the matrix and/or replace some of the matrix volume with a less expensive material. Common applications of PRPCs include structural materials in construction, packaging, automobile tires, medicine, etc. Determination of effective properties of composites is an essential problem in many engineering applications (Van, 2003 and Love, 2004).

These properties are influenced by the size, shape, properties and spatial distributions of the reinforcement (Liu, 1995 and Lee, 1998).

Modification of organic polymers through incorporation of additives yield, with few exceptions, multiphase systems containing the additive embedded in a continuous polymeric matrix. The resulting mixtures are characterised by unique microstructures that are responsible for their properties. Polymer composites are mixtures of polymers with inorganic or organic additives having certain geometries. Thus, they consist of two or more components and two or more phases. In addition to polymer composites, other important types of modified polymer systems include polymer-polymer blends and polymeric forms. Blending procedures had been employed since time immemorial. The principle of blending is geared towards achieving property averaging. A blend is therefore the physical mixture of two or more substances, without a chemical bond, (Mamza, 2011)....

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