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Title page
Table of content
Abbreviations and Symbols

1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Aims and Objectives

2.1       Small Ruminants
2.2       Small Ruminants Production Systems
2.2.1 Traditional livestock production system
2.2.2 Modern livestock production system
2.3 Brucellosis
2.3.1    Description of the causative agents
2.3.2    Epidemiology
2.3.3    Susceptibility
2.3.4    Transmission
2.3.5    Incubation period
2.3.6    Diagnosis
2.3.7    Treatment
2.3.8    Prevention
2.3.9    Control

3.1       Study Area
3.2       Study Design
3.2.1    Sample size determination
3.2.2    Sampling method
3.2.3    Sampling from the households
3.2.4    Sampling from the abattoirs
3.2.5    Sample collection
3.3 Laboratory Procedure
3.3.1 Procedure for Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT)
3.3.2 Procedure for Competitive-enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay (cELISA)
3.3.3 Interpretation
3.4 Questionnaire
3.5 Data Analysis

4.1 Sero-prevalence of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants in Bauchi State
4.2       Sero-prevalence of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants in Bauchi State Based on Source of Sample
4.3       Sero-prevalence of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants in Bauchi State Based on Sex
4.4 Sero-prevalence of Brucellosis in Sheep in Bauchi State Based on Sex
4.5 Sero-prevalence of Brucellosis in Goats in Bauchi State Based on Sex
4.6       Sero-prevalence of Brucellosis in the LGAs Studied
4.7       Sero-prevalence of Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the Three Zones of Bauchi State
4.8       Mode of Feeding among of the Animals Household Flocks in the Six LGAs of Bauchi State Studied
4.9       Level of Awareness on Brucellosis among Small Ruminant Farmers in Bauchi State
4.10     Level of Awareness on Signs of Brucellosis in Small ruminant Household flocks in the six LGAs of Bauchi State
4.11     Level of Awareness on Transmission of Brucellosis from Animals to Humans by Small Ruminant Farmers in Bauchi State
4.12     Level of awareness on the need for protection against brucellosis by Small ruminant farmers in the six LGAs of Bauchi State
4.13 Consumption of Milk by Small Ruminant Farmers from their Animals
 4.14 Mode of Milk intake


6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendations


This study was designed to determine the sero-epidemiological status of small ruminant brucellosis in Bauchi state, Nigeria. A total of 739 small ruminants comprising of 324 and 415 sheep and goats respectively from the three Senatorial Zones of the State were used for this study. Blood samples were collected from small ruminants slaughtered in the abattoirs and flocks of sheep and goats in the study area. Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) was used to screen all the sera obtained from the animals and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA) was used to confirm the RBPT positive sera. Out of 324 sheep sampled, 114 (35.2%) and 77 (23.8%) were positive for Brucella infection by RBPT and cELISA, respectively. Similarly out of 415 goat sampled, 98 (23.6%) and 56 (13.5%) were positive by RBPT and cELISA respectively. In sheep, the highest prevalence of brucellosis using cELISA were found in Dass and Darazo LGAs with (37.2%) and (20.0%) being positive, respectively, while the lowest prevalence were found in Ningi and Gamawa LGAs with (16.0%) and (19.4%) being positive, respectively. However, in goats, the highest prevalence of brucellosis using cELISA test were recorded in Katagum LGA (25.5%) and Darazo LGA (22.6%) while the lowest prevalence were in Gamawa LGA (3.5%) and Ningi 4 samples (8.3%) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between brucellosis and sex of the small ruminants. Questionnaires administered revealed low awareness of brucellosis in the study area especially among those age groups that are < 18 and those with Islamic or primary educational status, while the mode of transmission and how to protect against the disease were also not satisfactorily understood by the respondents. From this study, it was concluded that brucellosis among small ruminants may be endemic and the level of awareness on its zoonotic importance and attitude of farmers towards management of animals in Bauchi state, Nigeria need to be improved. There is need to intensify campaigns on brucellosis especially on route of transmission and preventive measures among the farmers. The Government needs to outline strategies on how to employ the use of vaccine in prevention and culling of infected animals to ensure total eradication in the state, which can be achieved by adequate compensation to farmers by the government.



1.1 Background of the Study

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis that is recognized as a major cause of significant economic losses in livestock due to its primary effect on the reproductive system in affected animals with concomitant reduction in production and also the serious threat to human health it poses (Young, 1991; Adams, 2002; Santellano-Estrada et al., 2004; Ehizibolo et al., 2011).

Brucellosis is caused by fastidious, intracellular, non-spore forming, non-motile, non-encapsulated, gram negative coccobacillus (or short rod) bacterium of the genus

Brucella which contains six well defined species distinguished according to their preferential host, biochemical tests and cell surface characteristics (FAO, 2005; Zygmunt et al., 2009). They include Brucella abortus (in cattle), B. melitensis (in goats and sheep), B. suis (in pigs) B. ovis (causing epididymitis in sheep and goat), B. canis

(in dogs), and B. neotomae (affecting desert  wood rats in  the USA). B. inopinata

(isolated from a human patient).

Four more species were recently proposed, B. ceti and B. pennipedialis isolated from marine animals, B. inopinata (isolated from a human patient) and B. microti isolated from the common vole (OIE, 2009). However, cross infection does occur among the species with ingestion, inhalation and direct contact as the major routes of infection in both animals and human (Alton et al., 1988; Winchell et al., 2010).....

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