PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF THE STEM BARK EXTRACT(S) OF INDIGOFERA ARRECTAHOCHST EX A. RICH (FABACEAE)


For more Chemistry project click here



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents
List of abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Definition of a drug
1.2       Medicinal plants
1.3       Medicinal plant research
1.4       Aim
1.4.1    Objectives
1.5       Scope and limitations of research
1.6       Justification of the research

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Literature review
2.1       Botanical description of the genus Indigofera arrecta
2.1.1    Other botanical information
2.1.2    Origin and geographical distribution
2.2       Chemical constituents of indigofera arrecta
2.2.1    Traditional medicinal uses
2.2.2    Uses of some of the genus
2.3       Production and international trade
2.3.1    Pharmacological properties
2.3.2 Adulterations and substitutes
2.3.3 Growth and development
2.3.4    Ecology
2.3.5 Management
2.3.6    Propagation and planting
2.3.7    Diseases and pests
2.3.8    Harvesting
2.3.9    Yield
2.4       Handling after harvest
2.4.1    General description of Indigofera arrecta (HOCHST  EX.A.RICH )
2.5       Review of some natural products from plants, tests and  their  uses
2.5.1Alkaloids
2.5.2Flavonoids
2.5.3    Saponins
2.5.4    Glycosides
2.5.5    Tannins
2.5.6    Steroids
2.5.7.   Terpenoids
2.6       Factors which can affect the level or the composition of the active ingredients in medicinal plant
2.7       Some microorganisms and their effects on the human body
2.7.1    Staphylococci
2.7.2    Streptococci
2.7.3    Candida
2.7.4    Enterobacteriaceae
2.7.5    Klebsiella
2.7.6    Escherichia coli
2.7.7    Salmonellae

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Materials and method
3.1       Materials/reagents/equipment and analytical procedure
3.1.1    Solvents
3.1.2    Equipment
3.1.3    Reagent
3.1.4    Microbial media, test organisms and equipment for antimicobial test
3.1.5    The identification and preparation of plant material
3.1.6    Extraction procedure for crude extract
3.2       Preliminary phytochemical screening
3.2.1    Test for steroids/terpenes
3.2.2    Test for flavonoids
3.2.3    Test for alkaloids
3.2.4    Test for tannins
3.2.5    Test for anthraquinones
3.2.6    Test for saponins
3.2.7    Test for glycoside (fecl3 test)
3.3       Antimicrobial screening
3.3.1    Preparation of bacterial test organisms
3.3.2    Preparation of fungal test organisms
3.3.3    The stock dilution of the plant extracts
3.3.4    Preparation of the nutrient agar
3.3.5    Preparation of the sabouraud dextrose agar media
3.3.6    The punched agar diffusion method [bryant, 1972]
3.3.7    Preparation of inoculums of test organisms
3.3.8    Sensitivity test of the extract using agar diffusion method
3.3.9    Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration using tube dilution method
3.4       Minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc)
3.4.1    Chromatographic purification of extracts
3.4.2    Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
3.4.3    Column chromatography
3.4.4    Solvents system/elution
3.4.5    Gel filtration chromatography
3.4.6    Thin layer chromatography of the n-hexane extract
3.4.7    Column chromatography of n-hexane fraction

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Results
4.1       Result of extraction
4.2       Result of phytochemical screening
4.3       Results of antimicrobial activity
4.4       Result of chromatographic separation
4.5       Column chromatography of n-hexane fraction
4.6       Isolation of EB
4.7       TLC analysis of EB
4.8       Result of antimicrobial activity of compound EB

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Discussion of result
5.1       Extraction
5.2       Phytochemical screening
5.3       Antimicrobial screening
5.4       Physical and chemical properties of EB
5.4.1    Spectral analysis
5.4.2    FTIR
5.4.3    1H NMR
5.4.4    13C NMR
5.4.5    DEPT

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation
6.1.      Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendation
References



ABSTRACT


The Pulverized stem bark of Indigofera arrectawas exhaustively extracted with methanol and concentrated in vacuo using rotary evaporator at 40 0C.The extract was later subjected to solvent partitioning to yield soluble extracts of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol. Genernal phytochemical screening of the fractions revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as cardiac glycoside,steroid, terpenes flavonoids and tannins. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus,S. pyogenes,S.feacalis, S.typhii, E.coli C. ulcerans,P. vulgaris and C.albicans was tested using the tube dilution and agar diffusion methods as outlined by the NCCLS. The results of the antimicrobial activity as indicated by the zonesof inhibition of growth of microorganism ranged from 20mm to 40mm for the n-hexane extract, 16mm to 21mm for ethyl acetate extract and 20mm to 27mm for the methanol extract. The MIC result for the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts ranged from 7.5mg/ml to 15mg/ml. The MIC of 15mg/ml exhibited by the n-hexane extract against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria indicates broad spectrum activity of Indigofera arrect. The n-hexane fractions was subjected to Column Chromatography using silica gel to yield 87 fractions, which were combined based on their thin layer chromatography analysis and recrystallized in methanol to give a pure white crystalline powder, which melts at 144oC. The structure of the isolated compound was established by spectroscopic analysis and by direct comparison of the data obtained with those reported in literature to be Stigmasterol (3β,22E-Sigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol).



CHAPTER ONE


1.0    INTRODUCTION


1.1              Definition of a drug

A drug can be described as any chemical substance that has no nutritional value when

introduced into the body but causes some physiological effects within the system (Mbah, 2000). Drugs are classified under pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical drug, according to Dey (2006), also refers to as medicine or medicament, can be loosely defined as any substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of diseases.

Some pharmaceuticals occur naturally in plants. These can be called phyto pharmaceuticals. By the strictest definition, they are drugs or chemicals that may have health related effects but are not considered essential nutrients. Protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins are regarded as essential nutrients. Some pharmaceuticals found in plants include gedunin and nimbolide from Azadirachta indica (Neem) (Khalid and Duddeck, 1993); santonin, a sesquiterpenoid lactone is found in species of Artemisia which grows in Asia, quinine and alkaloid occurs in the bark of cinchona tree; penincillin- a beta-lactam is produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium (Finar, 2003) and reserpine-an alkaloid is isolated from Rauwolfia plant.


1.2Medicinal plants

According to biblical records, Prophet Ezekiel reported that the fruits will serve as food and their leaves for healing (Ezekiel 47:12). Thus, the use of plants for medicinal purposes dates back to thousands of years ago as the earliest humans used various plants to treat illness....


For more Chemistry project click here


___________________________________________________________________________
This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.


Share:

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts