PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI BACTERIAL STUDIES ON THE STEM BARK OF LANNEA BARTERI. (OLIV.) ENGL. (ANACARDIACEAE)


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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Abstract
Table of content
List of abbreviation

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Medicinal plants
1.2 Medicinal Plants with Antibacterial Activities
1.3       Statement of Research problem
1.4       Justification of the Research
1.5       Statement of the Research Hypothesis
1.6       Overall Aim of the work
1.7       Specific Aims

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Prevalence of bacterial infections
2.2       Burden of Bacterial Infections
2.3       Characteristics features of Bacteria
2.4       Classification of Bacterial infections
2.5       Current treatment to Bacterial infections
2.6       Limitations of current Bacterial infections
2.7       Antibacterial Drug resistance
2.8       Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drug resistance
2.9       Plant Derived Agents with Antimicrobial Properties
2.10     Description of L. barteri
2.11     Ethno medical uses of L. barteri
2.12     Reported Constituents from L. barteri
2.13     Some Isolated chemical constituents from the family Anacardiacea

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1       List of material
3.2       List of Equipment
3.3       List of Media
3.4       List of chemicals
3.5       Plant Collection, Identification and Preparation
3.5.1 Collection of plant material
3.5.2 Identification of plant material
3.5.3 Preparation of the stem bark
3.6       Pharmacognsostic studies of the stem bark
3.6.1    Determination of moisture constant
3.6.2    Determination of Ash value
3.6.3    Determination of acid-insoluble Ash Value
3.6.4    Determination of water soluble Ash
3.6.5    Water soluble extractives (cold maceration method)
3.6.6    Ethanol soluble extractives (cold maceration method
3.7       Chemo-microscopic studies of the stem bark
3.7.1 Test for lignin
3.7.2 Test for cellulose
3.7.3 Test for starch
3.7.4 Test for Tannins
3.7.5 Test for Gums and Mucilage
3.7.6 Test for fats and oils
3.7.7 Test for calcium oxalates and calcium carbonates
3.8                   Extraction of Lannea barteri stem bark
3.9   Fractionation of methanolic extract
3.10     Preliminary Phytochemical Screening
3.10.1  Test for Carbohydrates
3.10.2  Test for Anthracene Derivatives
3.10.3  Test for Unsaturated steroid and triterpenes
3.10.4  Test for glycosides
3.10.5  Test for tannins
3.10.6  Test for flavonoids
3.10.7  Test for alkaloids
3.11     Antibacterial Activities of the Organic Solvents Fractions
3.11.1  Test Organisms
3.11.1  Culture media
3.11.3  Preparation of the Standard Inocula of the Organisms
3.11.4  Determination of inhibitory activity (Sensitivity test) of the extract using agar well            diffusion method
3.11.5  Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
3.11.6  Determination of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
3.12     Column Chromatography
3.13     Determination of Zone of Inhibition, MIC and MBC for Compound A
3.14     Isolation of compound A

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0  RESULTS
4.1  Pharmacognostic properties of L. Barteri
4.2       Chemo microscopy results
4.3       Extractiion of Lannea barteri stem bark
4. 4      partitioning of Lannea barteri stem bark
4.5       Preliminary Phytochemical screening
4.6       Thin layer chromatography of extract and fractions
4.7       Diameter Zone of Inhibition
4.8       Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) (mg/ml)
4.9       Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) (mg/ml)
4. 10    Column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction
4.11     Isolation of compound
4.12     Diameter Zone of Inhibition, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration for the Compound A
4.13     Fourier Transformed-Infra Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION
6.1       Summary
6.0       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

ABSTRACT


Lannea bartei (Oliv.) Engl. is a plant with medicinal and commercial uses found usually in the tropical regions like Africa especially Ivory Coast. The plant is used traditionally to treat various diseases including wound healing and as anti diarrhoea. This research is aimed at investigating the wound healing claim which is due to anti bacterial property of the stem bark of the plant. Powdered stem bark of the plant (2 kg) was extracted with methanol using maceration technique and part of the crude extract obtained (300 g) was used for phytochemical screening and anti bacterial assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Physical constant determination and the chemo microscopical features of the powdered stem bark were also carried out. 50 g of the crude methanolic extracts was dissolved in warm water, filtered and the filtrate was partitioned with hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtained the respective fractions of the organic solvents hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions which were equally used for antibacterial assay. The aqueous fraction and the resultant three fractions obtained after partitioned were tested against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. typhi. Most of them were active but the ethyl acetate fraction was more active and was subjected to column and thin layer chromatography leading to the isolation of an oily substance which is yellowish in colour named compound A. The compound was also subjected to antibacterial assay and was found to be active against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. typhi. Specific test and FTIR result on the compound A shows the evidence of presence of phenolic group in the compound. The stem bark of L. barteri posseses anti bacterial activity and this is attributed to the presence of various classes of compounds which were proven by this research to be present. These compounds include phenols, alkaloid, coumarins etc.


CHAPTER ONE


1.0 INTRODUCTION


1.1                        Medicinal Plants


Medicinal plants have also been of importance in the health care system of local communities as the main source of medicine for the majority of the rural population. Plants have not only nutritional value but also, in the eyes of the local people, they have medicinal and ritual or magical values (Adewunmi et al., 2001). Plants have been a major source of medicine for human kind. According to available information, a total of at least 35000 plants species are widely used for medicinal purposes. The demand for traditional herbs is increasing very rapidly, mainly because of the harmful effects of synthetic chemical drugs. The global clamor for more herbal ingredients creates possibilities for the local cultivation of medicinal and aromatic crops as well as for the regulated and sustainable harvest of wild plants. Such endeavors could help raise rural employment in the developing countries, boost commerce around the world and perhaps contribute to the health of millions (Anita, 2004). Nigeria is endowed with an enormous diversity of animals and plants, both domesticated and wild, and an impressive variety of habitats and ecosystems. This heritage sustains the food, medicinal, clothing, shelter, spiritual, recreational, and other needs of her population (Odugbemi and Akinsulire, 2006). This biodiversity also ensures the essential ecological functions on which life depends, including a steady supply of clean water, nutrient cycling, and soil maintainance. It is the treasure house from which future food needs, cures diseases, and elements for knowledge and technology will be found. Plants have provided the basis for traditional treatment for different types of diseases and still offer an enormous potential source of new chemotherapeutic agent.....
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