PACKED BED REACTOR SYSTEM STUDY ON THE BIOSORPTION OF Cr(VI) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING CORN COB POWDER


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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Content
List of Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Aims and Objectives
1.4.1    Aims
1.4.2    Specific Objectives

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Biosorption
2.1.1    Mechanism of Biosorption
2.1.2    Factors Affecting Biosorption
2.1.3    Advantages of Biosorption
2.2       History of Corn
2.2.1    Classification of Corn
2.2.2   Biosorbent Properties of Corncob
2.3       Chemistry and Characteristic of Chromium
2.4       Hexavalent Chromium
2.4.1    Toxicity of Chromium (VI)
2.4.2   Chromium (VI) andthe Environment
2.4.3   Health Hazards of Chromium (VI)
2.5       Packed Bed Column Reactor
2.5.1   Benefits of Continuous Reactors
2.6       The Adsorption Isotherm of Metal Removal
2.6.1    Freundlich Adsorption Study
2.6.2    Langmuir Adsorption Study

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Materials
3.1.1    Biosorbent
3.1.2   Reagents and Equipment Used
3.1.3    Continuous Reactor System
3.2       Methods
3.2.1    Pre-Treatment of Biosorbent
3.2.2   Preparation of Chromium (VI) Solution
3.2.3   Preparation of DiphenylCarbazideSolution (Developing Reagent)
3.2.4   Determination of Chromium (VI) Concentration
3.2.5   Preparation of Standard Curve
3.2.6   Determination of the Effect of Mass of Biosorbent on Chromium (VI) Removal
3.2.7    Determination of the Effect of Flow Rate on Chromium (VI) Removal
3.2.8    Determination of the Effect of Temperature on Chromium (VI) Removal
3.2.9    Determination of the Effect of Initial K2Cr2O7 Concentration on Chromium (VI) Removal
3.3.0    Determination of the Effect of pH on Chromium (VI) Removal
3.3.1    The Use of Activated Carbon as Adsorbent For Chromium (VI) Removal
3.3.2    The Used of Waste Water Containing Chromium(VI) from a Leather Tanning Industry
3.3.3   FTIR Analysis of Biosorbent
3.3.4    Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1       Effect of Mass of Corncob on Chromium (VI) Removal
4.2       Effect of Flow Rate on Chromium (VI) Removal
4. 3      Effect of Temperature on Chromium (VI) Removal
4.4       Effect of Initial K2Cr2O7 Concentration on Chromium(VI) Removal
4.5       Effect of pH On Chromium (VI) Removal
4.6       Use of Activated Carbon as aAdsorbent In The Column
4.7       The Used of Waste Water Containing Chromium(VI) from NILEST
4.8       FTIR Analysis of Biosorbent
4.9       The Adsorption Isotherm Studies

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDICES



ABSTRACT


The current method used in the treatment of Cr(VI) uses biosorbents that are expensive hence the need for cheaper available biosorbent. In this study,potential use of corn cob powder biomass, as a bioremediation agent for the removal of Cr(VI) was investigated in a packed bed column bioreactor. The effects of the operating parameters such as influent Cr(VI) concentration, pH, biomass concentration, flow rate and temperature, on the Cr(VI) removal were investigated in the continuous system using a packed-bed reactor. Percentage removal curves were obtained for different flow rate, pH, temperature, biomass concentration and initial concentration of Cr(VI). It was found that the adsorption of Cr(VI) to the biomass was strongly dependent on these parameters, as expected. In particular, the influent pH and temperature were most significantly affected leading toa high percentage removal of Cr(VI); a decrease in the influent pH of 2, and an increase in the temperature up to 70°C enhanced the Cr(VI) reduction in the column significantly (P<0 .05="" 11.39="" 5min="" 70="" a="" analysis="" and="" biosorbent="" carboxylic="" carried="" ethane="" ethyne="" flow="" for="" ftir="" functional="" group="" higher="" hydroxyl="" ml="" of="" on="" optimum="" out="" percentage.="" presence="" rate="" removal="" showed="" some="" span="" spectra="" the="" to="" up="" was="">2) groups which are responsible for the biosorption reaction in the column. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fitted reasonably well with

the data and showed high correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.993 and 0.985 respectively. These results show that, the adsorbent can be used as a low cost alternative in biosorption of wastewaters containing lowerconcentrations of Cr(VI).Finally, the potential of the column packed with corncobbiomass for Cr(VI) detoxification has been found to be a good biosorbent in removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and also in the treatment of Cr(VI) containing industrial waste.





CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION


1.1              Background of Study

Over the last three decades there has been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO)estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution (WHO, 2002).

Pollution by heavy metals is one of the serious environmental threats as a result of various industrial discharges (Wang and Chen, 2009). Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) is released into the environment by many industrial activities such as leather tanning, chrome plating, stainless steel welding, pigment production and nuclear weapon production (Gonzalez et al., 2003). Chromium exists in two oxidation states Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and the most toxic form is Cr(VI), which has been implicated in causation of liver damage, pulmonary congestion and oedema (Babu and Gupta, 2008; Raji and Anirudhan, 1998).

Pollution of water due to presence of certain heavy metal ions is a severe socio-environmental problem caused by the discharge of industrial wastewater. In view of their toxicity, non-biodegradability and persistent nature, their removal becomes an

absolute necessity. However, such processes are not only expensive and highly energy intensive, but also lead to production of harmful by-products and end-products, the ultimate disposal of which again causes secondary pollution (Sen and Ghosh, 2010).....

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