INFLUENCE OF MARITAL STATUS ON APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG TERTIARY INSTITUTION STUDENTS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Abstract
Table of content
Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the study
1.2       Statement of the problem
1.3       Objectives of the study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Research Hypotheses
1.6       Basic Assumptions
1.7       Significance of the study
1.8       Scope and Delimitation

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1.      Introduction
2.2.      Conceptual Framework
2.2.1. The concept of marital status
2.2.2. Concept of Approaches to Learning
2.2.3. Concept of Academic Achievement
2.3.      Marital Status
2.3.1    Marriage
2.3.2. Marital Adjustment
2.4.      Approaches to Learning
2.4.1    Deep Approach to Learning
2.4.2. Surface Approach to Learning
2.4.3    Achieving or Strategic Approaches to Learning
2.4.4    Approaches to Learning and Academic Achievement
2.4.5    Approaches to Learning and Gender
2.5       Academic Achievement
2.5.1    Academic Achievement and Marital Status
2.5.2    Academic Achievement and Gender
2.6       Theoretical framework
2.6.1    Role Expectation Theory on Marital Adjustment
2.6.2  Psychodynamic Theory on Marital Adjustment
2.6.3    Students Approaches to Learning (SAL) Theory
2.6.4    Bandura‘s Social Cognitive Theory on academic achievement
2.7       Review of Empirical Studies
2.8       Summary

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1.      Introduction
3.2.      Research Design
3.3.      Population of the study
3.4.      Sample and sampling technique
3.5       Instrumentation
3.5.1    Validity of the Instrument
3.5.2    Reliability of the instrument
3.5.3   Procedure for data collection
3.6       Procedure for data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Analysis of bio data variables in frequencies and percentages distribution
4.3       Hypotheses Testing
4.4       Summary of major findings
4.5       Discussions and Finding

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Recommendations
5.5       Suggestions for further studies
References
Appendices



ABSTRACT


This study examined the influence of marital status on approaches to learning and academic achievement of tertiary institutions students in Zamfara state, Nigeria. Five research objectives were postulated and five null research hypotheses in line with research questions were posed and tested. A sample of 379 students from three (3) institutions drawn from a population of 34,909 tertiary institutions students of the state. The expost facto design was adopted in carrying out the study. The revised two facto study process questionnaire and CGPA were used to collect data from students. The test-re-test and cronbach alpha method were used to estimate reliability of the research instruments. A coefficient of 0.73 and alpha value of 0.64 were obtained as reliability estimate for the instruments t – test and chi square was used to test null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed no significant between married and unmarried in their academic achievement. (t = 0.279, p – 0.781). Significance difference does not exist between married and unmarried student in their approaches. (X2 = 3.841, p = 0.551). Significant difference exist between surface learners and deep learners in their academic achievement, (t = 1.96, p = 0.000). Significance difference exist between male and female students in the approaches to learning, (X2 = 3.841, p = 0.000). Significance difference does not exists between male and female students in their academic achievement, (t = 0.437, p = 0.662). It was recommended that school psychologist, teachers and counselors should be sensitized on the influence of marital status on approaches to learning in order to improve academic achievement in schools.




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background to the Study

Education is a dynamic force in the life of every individual in influencing their physical,

mental, emotional, social and ethical development. It is obvious that, only through the forces of education (both formal and informal) human standards and ideas can be raised. The education values aid the social, political and personal adjustment of the married complex in any given society, Mimkolf (1965). Education is therefore vital for improved family life. Gerda and Dennis (1982) noted that the family depends largely on educational level and use of that education in day-to-day activities. An individual irrespective of their marital status or gender needs to be given the best education.

Marital status in this work refers to the state of being married or unmarried. The consequences of marital status on both male and female student on their education can be drawn from both negative and positive perspectives. It has become an issue of concern that the marital status of a students may influence their approaches to learning and that their approaches to learning also may influence their academic achievement either positively or negatively.Approaches to learningrefer to the foundation that affects how student learn in every other content area. It encompasses students‘engagement, motivation, and participation in the classroom. There is general agreement that there are two fundamental approaches to learning-deep and surface. In the early 1970s, Swedish researches identified two qualitatively different approaches to learning adopted by students in response to their perceived learning environment (Marton and Saljo, 1977), these are deep and surface approaches. Deep learning involves the critical analysis of new ideas, linking them to already known concepts so that they can be used.....


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