EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF LABOUR OUTPUTS FOR BLOCK LAYING IN F.C.T., ABUJA AND NASARAWA STATE


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Justification of the Study
1.4       Research Aim and Objectives
1.4.1    Research aim
1.4.2    Objectives of the research
1.5       Research Hypotheses
1.6       Delimitation and Limitation
1.6.1    Delimitation of the study
1.7       Basic Assumptions

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Overview of the Construction Industry
2.2       Overview of Sources of Estimating Standard in Nigerian Construction Industry
2.2.1    Review of block laying measurement as relate to BESMM3
2.2.2    Bill items2.2.3 Unit rate estimating
2.3       Productivity
2.3.1    Definition and concept of productivity
2.3.2    Construction productivity
2.3.3    Factors affecting construction productivity
2.3.4    Factors affecting productivity of block layer operatives
2.4       Review of the Sources of Output Constant in Nigeria
2.5       Work Study Techniques
2.5.1    Types of work study techniques
2.5.1.1 Method study
2.5.1.2 Work measurement
2.5.2    Procedure of work measurement
2.5.3    Work measurement techniques
2.5.3.1 Time study
2.5.3.2 Activity sampling
2.5.3.3 Craftsman questionnaire
2.5.3.4 Foreman delay surveys


CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1       Research Design/ Approach
3.2       Study Population
3.3       Research Sample
3.4       Sampling Techniques
3.5       Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
3.6       Procedure for Data Collection
3.6.1    Literature review
3.6.2    Field survey
3.7       Instrument for Data Collection
3.8       Research Procedures
3.9       Instrument for Data Analysis
3.9.1    Descriptive Statistics
3.9.2    Inferential analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
4.1       Administration of Data
4.2       Data Presentation
4.2.1    Frequencies of group productivity factors in construction site
4.2.2    Discussion
4.3       Data Presentation for Output of 150mm thick Block Work in Foundation
4.4       Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 150mm Thick Block Work in Foundation
4.5       150mm Data for Output of Thick Block Work in Superstructure
4.6       Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 150mm thick Block in Superstructure
4.7       Data for Outputs of 150mm Thick Block Work in Superstructure Overhand
4.8       Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 150mm thick Block Work in Superstructure Overhand
4.9       Data for Output of 225mm thick Block Work in Foundation
4.10     Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 225mm Thick Block Work in Foundation
4.11     Data for Output of 225mm thick Block Work in Superstructure
4.12     Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 225mm Thick Block Work in Superstructure
4.13     Data for Output of 225mm thick Block Work in Superstructure Overhand
4.14     Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 225mm Thick Block Work in Superstructure Overhand
4.15     Data for Output of 225mm thick Block Isolated Piers in Superstructure
4.16     Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 225mm Thick Block Isolated Piers in Superstructure
4.17     Data for Output of 225mm thick Block Isolated Piers in Superstructure Overhand
4.18     Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 225mm Block Thick Isolated Piers in Superstructure Overhand
4.19     Data for Output of 225 mm Thick Block in Pit of Plan Bottom Greater than 4m²
4.20     Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 225mm Thick Block in Pit of Plan Bottom Greater than 4m²
4.21     Data for Output of 225 mm Thick Block in Pi t of Plan Bottom Less than 4m²
4.22     Descriptive Analyses of Productivity Factors of 225mm Thick Block in Pit of Plan Bottom Less than 4m²
4.23     Effect of Productivity Factors on Labour Outputs
4.24     Determination of Block Layers Outputs
4.25     Summary of Major Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendations
5.3       Suggestions for Further Study
5.4       Contribution to Knowledge
REFERENCES
APPENDICE



ABSTRACT

The source and nature of output constants used for preparation of construction estimates should be accurate and reliable for the client to have confidence on the prepared estimates. This research is focused on using time study approach to empirically determine the outputs of block laying work items inconstruction industry. The study reviewed BESMM3 and surveyed possible block work items in construction sites. Ten work items were selected from the identified block work items in BESMM3 and construction sites for Physical observations and output measurement. A total of 105 sites were observed in F.C.T., Abuja and Nasarawa state. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using both the descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques. The inferential tools adopted were T-test and ANOVA statistics to assess and examine the influence of some selected labour productivity factors on the outputs of the workers observed. The inferential test revealed the following; period of observation, shape of the building and mode of employment significantly affected outputs on the ten work items. The results of the analysis carried out established mean output values per day for: 150mm thick block in foundation (12.85m2); 150mm thick block in superstructure (13.22 m2); 150mm thick block in superstructure overhand (12.47m2); 225mm thick block in foundation (8.90m2); 225mm thick block in superstructure (11.17m2); 225mm thick block in superstructure overhand (9.16m2); 225mm thick block isolated piers in superstructure (5.00m2); 225mm thick block piers in superstructure overhand (4.57m2); 225mm thick block in pit bottom plan > 4 m2

(7.85m2); 225mm thick block in bottom plan < 4 m2 (7.13m2). The study also identified forty-four (44) block work items not captured in BESMM3 and suggested that these work items be incorporated into BESMM3 for productive and cost implication. The research recommended that in compliance to BESMM3, the NIQS in collaboration with NJIC to sponsor a research on determination of labour outputs in all trades as a way to ensure uniformity in output constants. The study therefore finally concludes that SMM takes cognizance of productivity impact associated with labour and it is imperative for reliability and accuracy in block work estimate to empirically determine labour outputs on the basis of work items as stated in BESMM3.





CHAPTER ONE


1           INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the Study

In Nigeria, like most developing countries, the construction industry plays a dominant role in the economic activities of the country.The efficiency of the construction industry has been established to heavily rely on its level of productivity. Construction productivity is constantly declining over a decade due to the lack of standard productivity data base system and ignorance of impact of various factors influencing labour productivity (Muqeemet al., 2011).The accuracy of the project cost estimates depend largely on the degree of accuracy of cost information obtained on the key components of an estimate (i.e. labour, plant, material, and profit and overhead) (Abdullahi, 2009), while the use of Standard Methods of Measurement (SMM) for the preparation of BOQ gives the quality and standard of the extent of work to be done, it also takes precedence of the cost significances of every classes of operations within a trade.

The common method of generating cost estimates for construction projects involves the multiplication of unit rate by the measured quantities in the bill of quantities (Ashworth, 2002).The unit rate is a component of labour rate (obtained from the multiplication of labour constant by all-in rate) plus cost of material and percentage allowance for profit and overhead, while the measured quantities are obtained from drawings and specifications for the works rules specified by Building and Engineering Standard Methods of Measurement (BESMM3). The inconsistency in application of a defined output constant for construction estimates has posed a serious research questions......


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