EFFECT OF MIX RATIO AND CURING WATER ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF OIL PALM SHELL (OPS) AGGREGATE CONCRETE


For more Civil Engineering Project click here



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents
Title page
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Preamble
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Justification of the Study
1.4       Aim and Objectives
1.4.1    Aim
1.4.2    Objectives
1.5       Scope of the Research

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Preamble
2.2       The Oil Palm Shells (OPS)
2.3       Mix Design of OPS Concrete
2.4       Mixing Water

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Materials
3.1.1 Aggregate
3.1.2 Oil Palm Shells (OPS)
3.1.3 Cement
3.1.4 Mixing Water
3.2       Preparation of Test Specimens
3.2.1 Mix Ratio and Percentage Replacement
3.2.2 Preparation of the Oil Palm Shells (OPS)
3.2.3 Production of the Concrete Test Cubes
3.2.4 Production of Concrete Test Cylinders
3.3       Laboratory Tests on the Oil Palm Shells (OPS)
3.3.1 Sieve Analysis
3.3.2 Water absorption
3.3.3 Aggregate impact value
3.3.4 Aggregate crushing value
3.4       Laboratory Tests on the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPS)
3.5       Laboratory Tests on the Fine Aggregate
3.6       Workability Test on the Fresh Concrete
3.6.1 Slump Test
3.6.2 Compacting Factor Test
3.7 Laboratory Tests on the Hardened Concrete
3.7.1    Compressive strength of concrete cubes and Cylinders
3.7.2    Modulus of Elasticity

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Tests on the Ordinary Portland Cement
4.2       Tests on fine aggregate
4.3       Chemical Analysis
4.4       Workability Test Results
4.5       Density Test Results
4.6       Produced Specimens
4.7       Compressive Strengths Test Results
4.8       Cost Implications

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                 
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES
Appendices



ABSTRACT


In this study, the compressive strengths and Modulus of elasticity of lightweight Concrete with oil palm shells as partial replacement of coarse aggregate was presented. The different types of mixing water were used, namely, clean water from Ahmadu Bello University Water Works, Salt water, obtained from Lagos Shore and Pond water obtained from Nagoye, Zaria. Also three mix ratios were adopted which include 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3 and 1:1:2 mix ratios. Five mixes were investigated; control, which contain granite coarse aggregate only; then four other mixes with 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% granite coarse aggregate replacement by oil palm Shell (OPS) aggregate. Fifteen samples where produced for each mix ratio, given a total of 135 concrete cube specimen for compressive strength tests and another 135 cylinder specimen for cylinder compressive strength tests and another 135 cylinder specimens for indirect tensile test for the determination of modulus of elasticity. In conclusion, after undertaking the laboratory practical‟s on the

OPS using 3 types of water for curing and varying the mix ratios to conform with class M15, M20 and M25, the effect of mix ratio and curing showed a tremendous difference but the use of OPS as a lightweight aggregate material was found to be adequate when compared with other materials being used as lightweight aggregate.




CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION


1.1              Preamble


Natural resources of the world are drastically dwindling due to the increasing demand of natural aggregate for the construction industry. The frequent use of natural aggregate in some areas led to environmental degradation, and has given impetus to studies and researches for sustainable development by using different waste products in the construction industry. Lightweight aggregates from industrial waste such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, bed ash has led to sustainable materials but due to the lack of production techniques, many of the developed and under-developed countries have not been able to use them to their advantage. If the weight of the structure is decreased by using lightweight aggregate in concrete, it will in turn reduce the foundation cost due to reduction in self-weight, which has been convincingly proved in developed countries (Alengaram, 2013). Reddy et al., (2014) stated that the consumption of the primary aggregate was 110 million tonnes in the U.K. during 1960 and reached nearly 275 million tonnes in the year 2006. Similarly 2 billion tones of aggregate are produced each year in the United states and it is expected to increase to more than 2.5 billion tonnes by the year 2020 (Reddy et al., 2014). It has been predicted that the demand for concrete is expected to grow to approximately 18 billion tons a year by 2050. Such heavy demands draw attention and preservation of natural aggregates, which are a matter of grave concern. Since aggregates contribute about 60–80% of the volume of the concrete, effective and efficient use of agricultural waste contributes to energy saving, conservation of natural resources and reduction of the cost of construction materials. Agricultural......


For more Civil Engineering Project click here


___________________________________________________________________________
This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.
Share:

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts