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Title Page
Table of Contents

1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Aim of the Study
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Basic Assumption
1.6 Justification of the Study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope of the Study

2.1 Glass and its Raw Materials
2.1.1 Quartz
2.1.2 Silica sand
2.1.3 Limestone (CaCO3)
2.1.4 Soda ash (Na2CO3)
2.1.5 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
2.1.6 Finning agents
2.1.7 Colorants and decolorisers
2.2 Types of Glass
2.2.1 Soda lime glass
2.2.2 Fused silica (vitreous) glass
2.2.3 Alumino silicate glass
2.2.4 Borosilicate (Pyrex glass)
2.2.5 Lead crystal glass
2.2.6 Potassium oxide glass
2.3 Properties of Glass
2.3.1 Physical properties
2.3.2 Optical properties
2.3.3 Thermal properties
2.3.4 Chemical properties
2.3.5 Electrical properties
2.3.6 Mechanical properties
2.4 Batch Formulation
2.5 Fluxes and their Types
2.5.1 Lithia (Li2O)
2.5.2 Lime (CaO)
2.5. Boric Oxide( B2O3)
2.5.4 Zinc oxide (ZnO)
2.6 Ash and Ashing Process
2.6.1 Dry Ashing
2.6.2 Wet Ashing
2.6.3 Low Temperature Plasma Ashing
2.7 Groundnut
2.8 Waste Management
2.8.1 Agricultural Waste Management
2.8.2 Recycling
2.9 Analytical Techniques
2.9.1 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
2.9.2 X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
2.9.3 Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS)
2.9.4 X-ray Crystallography (Diffraction)
2.10 Standard Tests
2.10.1 Glass density test
2.10.2 Thermal shock resistance test
2.10.3 Resistance to Chemical Attack Test
2.10.4 Water absorption test

3.1 Sampling
3.2 Pretreatment of Groundnut Husk
3.3 Ashing
3.4 Chemical Analysis of the Ash
3.5 Loss on Ignition (LOI)
3.6 Solubility Test
3.7 Batch Formulation
3.8 Test Melting
3.9 Property Tests
3.9.1 Chemical Resistant Test
3.9.2 Water absorption test
3.9.3 Glass Density Measurement
3.9.4 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
3.9.5 X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD)

4.1 Groundnut Husk Ashing
4.2 Chemical Analysis
4.3 Batch Formulation and Composition
4.4 Test Melting
4.5 Chemical and Physical Tests
4.6 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
4.7 X-ray Difrraction (XRD)
4.8 Findings

5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusions
5.3 Recommendations


Agricultural waste like Groundnut Husk Ash(GHA) generated can inevitably affect the environment by the emission of methane and leachate when rotten. The evaluation of the possible utilization of agricultural waste is important in not only protecting the environment but also in minimizing the cost of disposal, conservation of land for other purposes and reduction in the use of other raw materials. Groundnut husk Ash as a source of fluxing agent for Glass making was experimentally investigated using the ashes from groundnut husk sourced from Gumel, Kujama and Narayi in Kaduna State. The ash obtained from 100g of GH fromGumel, Kujama and Narayi was 2.00g, 2.20g and 1.80g respectively. The solubility test on each of the samples of GHA indicated that the ashes were fairly soluble in water. The XRF analysis carried out on the ash samples showed thatK2O as obtained on the samples from Gumel, Kujama and Narayi were 46.2%, 32.7% and 33.94% and the CaO were 34.5%, 26.8% and 30.9% respectively. The batches formulated corresponding to Soda Lime Silicate glass container composition (SiO2 70%K2O 15%, Na2O 2%, CaO 12%, MgO 1%, Fe2O3 0.03%) and test melted at about 13000C formed glass.10% solution of HCl(aq) was used for acid resistant test and 10% NaOH was used for Alkali resistant test. The test revealed the glass were resistant to both media and the densities of glass as obtained with the GHA samples from Gumel, Kujama and Narayi stood at 2.45gcm-3,2.47gcm-3,, 2.48gcm-3 respectively when measured. SEM analysis of the glass samples showed the external morphology while the XRD analysis showed a broad peak zone but absence of sharp Bragg‘s peak that signified the amorphous nature of the glass melts. From the result of analysis carried out on GHA and the test carried out on the formed glass, it has shown that GHA is a suitable source of fluxing agent for glass making.



In recent years, agricultural, industrial, and economic growth has been on a rise which is contributing to an improved quality and well-being of citizens.Due to the increase in the world‘s population and most of it moving to urban cities, there is increased demand for food, and this has resulted in the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes (Sabiti, 2011). However, wastes and by-products are created by the production systems which inevitably affect the environment. Some agricultural wastes emit methane and leachate when rotten, while some open burning by farmers to clear the lands, generates CO2 and other local pollutants (UNEP, 2009).These wastes can be generated at any point in the production cycle, whether during obtaining the raw materials, transformation and production, or when the end user disposes the products which are no longer needed.

The enormous amount of waste generated is still far from being used in its totality, making technological alternatives imperative to reduce its possible environmental impact such as leaching of potentially toxic substances into soils and groundwater, reductions in plant establishment and growth due primarily to adverse chemical characteristics of the waste. Other effects are, changes in elemental composition of vegetation growing on the waste and an increased mobility as well as accumulation of potentially toxic elements throughout food chain.

According to Garkida (2002),waste prevention has economic benefits and reduces pollution. Generation of new products from recycled waste is thus an irreplaceable alternative.....

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