EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WHITE MUCUNA PRURIENS VAR. UTILIS SEED OIL

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT         
TITLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    PREAMBLE
1.1    INTRODUCTION        
1.2    OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
1.3    SCOPE OF WORK

CHAPTER TWO
2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1    FATS AND OILS
2.2.0  COMPONENTS OF MUCUNA SEEDS
2.2.1 NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES
2.2.2 ANTINUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES
2.2.3 PHARMACEUTICAL PROPERTIES
2.3.0 PLANT FATTY ACIDS AND OIL
2.4.1 RENDERING
2.4.2 PRESSING OR EXPELLING       
2.4.3 SOLVENT METHOD
2.4.4. SUPERCRITICAL METHOD
2.4.5 ENZYME METHOD
2.5.0 REACTIONS OF FATS AND OILS
2.5.1 RANCIDIFICATION
2.5.2 HYDROGENATION
2.6.0 PROPERTIES OF LIPIDS
2.6.1 CHEMICAL INDICES
2.6.2 PHYSICAL INDICES
2.7.0 USES OF FATS AND OIL
2.7.1 FOOD INDUSTRY
2.7.2 FATS IN SOAP AND DETERGENT INDUSTRY
2.7.3 FATS IN THE COATING INDUSTRY
2.7.4 FATS IN THE COSMETIC INDUSTRY
2.7.5 FATS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDSUTRY

CHAPTER THREE
3.0    MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 SOURCING OF SAMPLES
3.2 PREPARATION OF SAMPLES
3.3 OIL EXTRACTION
3.3.1 DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE OIL YIELD
3.4 DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE MOISTURE
3.5.0 OIL ANALYSIS
3.5.1 DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE DENSITY
3.5.2 DETERMINATION OF MELTING TEMPERATURE
3.5.3 DETERMINATION OF IODINE VALUE
3.5.4 DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE
3.5.5. DETERMINATION OF PH OF THE OIL
3.5.6 DETERMINATION OF ACID VALUE
3.5.7 DETERMINATION OF SAPONIFICATION VALUE
3.5.8 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION USING TLC
3.5.9 FATTY ACID PROFILE OF THE OIL USING GLC

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1    RESULTS
4.2    DISCUSSION
4.3    CONCLUSION
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    PREAMBLE
1.1    INTRODUCTION
          In our world today, the geometric increase of the population has raised alarming concerns on the food security to sustain the teeming population (Sridhar, 2007). The worse hit is developing countries in Africa, especially Nigeria that still lacks the capacity to manage food production tasks arising from the current global warming and other environmental changes. The few food products usually lack adequate proteins, essential fatty acids and vitamins leading to the common form of malnutrition in individuals.
          Interestingly, unconventional legumes are promising in terms of nutrition, provisions of food security, agricultural development and in crop rotation in developing countries (Sridhar, 2007). The wild legume varieties have different quantities of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, lipid/fatty acids and minerals.
          Mucuna pruriens var.utilis is a tropical legume of the family Fabaceae and genus Mucuna. Some of its common names are Agbara (Igbo), Yerepe (Yoruba), Mauritius bean, cow itch, cow hage, Jackbohne (German). Velvet bean is an annual perennial, herbaceous, vigorous climbing vine that growso 3-18cm in height. It is indigenous of the tropical regions especially Africa, India and the West Indies. Its pods are sigmoid, turgid, longitudinally ribbed and always clustered on the stem and the pods are covered with reddish-orange hairs that dislodge readily causing intense irritation on the skin. The pods contain seeds that are black or white (Siddhuraju, 2000; Leslie, 2005; Sridhar, 2007).
          The oil contents of Mucuna seed may be edible and consist of different fatty acid which is a characteristic identify of most oil seeds. The chemical composition of an oil extract gives a qualitative identification of such oil in selection of areas while it can be applied or utilized despite differences in processing....

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