EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION OF LEARNING RESOURCES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND MOTIVATION IN ECONOMICS AT SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT

This study is on the effect of cooperative production of learning resources on students’ academic achievement and motivation in economics at senior secondary school Enugu East L.G.A of Enugu state. To achieve the major purpose of the study, four research questions were posed and four null hypotheses were formulated. Quasi experimental design involving a pre-test-post-test non-equivalent group design was used for the study. The population for the study was one thousand nine hundred and twenty senior secondary one economics students. Economics Achievement Test (EAT), Economic Essay Test (EET) and Economics Learning Motivation Scale (ELMS) were used for data collection. Mean scores were used to answer the research questions, analysis of covariance was used to test the hypotheses. The findings among others include that students in cooperative production of learning resources group are motivated more than those that were not; that cooperative production of learning resources group achieve higher than those that were not. It was also found that male students achieve higher mean score than female students in economics when exposed to cooperative production of learning resources approach, and that there is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students taught using cooperative production learning resources approach. It was recommended among others that teachers should expose students to cooperative instructional strategy like the cooperative production of learning resources that promotes and encourages social interaction, active engagement in learning, self-motivation, discovery learning, learning by doing and learning by experience. Also recommended is that further studies be carried out in this area so as to establish further the benefits or otherwise of the cooperative production of learning resources approach. Lastly, trainings and capacity building programmes is recommended for economics teachers so as to equip themselves with the necessary cooperative teaching skills for the overall improvement of the educational system.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Economics
Implementation of Economics Curriculum in Nigeria; Current Status
The Role of Instructional/learning Materials in the Teaching Senior Secondary Economics
The Use of Instructional Resources in the Teaching and Learning of Economics
Concept of Cooperative Learning and Cooperative Production of Learning Resources
Elements of Cooperative Learning Resources
Cooperative Production of Learning Resources: Merits and Demerits
Cooperative Production of Learning Resources and Motivation
Academic Achievement
Concept of Gender and Academic Achievement
School Location
Theoretical Review
Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory
Empirical Review
Studies Related To Cooperative Production of Learning Resources And Academic Achievement
Studies on Motivation and Academic Achievement
Studies on Cooperative Learning, Academic Achievement and Motivation
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the study
Area of the study
Population of the Study
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
Experimental procedure
Control of extraneous variables
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of the Findings
Cooperative Production of Learning Resources and Students’ Motivation in Economics
Cooperative Production of Learning Resources and Students’ Academic Achievement in Economics
Gender and Students’ Achievement
School Location and Students’ Achievement
Conclusion
Implication of the Study
Limitations of the Study
Recommendations
Suggested for Further Studies
REFERENCES
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Naturally human beings are economists because they apply economic principles daily in their lives as persons, family, in business and even in governance. Daily the lives of people revolve around the use or application of the principles and concepts of economics in prioritizing and managing the resources at their disposal properly with a view to save costs and avoiding unnecessary expenditures or wastes (Ikeche, 2004). Lionnel Robbin (1957), a foremost economist defined economics as the science which studies human behaviours as a relationship between ends and scarce means, which have alternative uses. Economics is the study of how to use scarce resources to satisfy human unlimited wants. According to Okafor (2007) Economics is a subject that helps individual to be relevant in everyday life and could prepare students for an entrepreneurial career in the future. The general objectives of studying economics in senior secondary school in Nigeria are as follows: To enable students; understand basic economic principles and concepts as tools for sound economic analysis, contribute intelligently to discourse on economic reforms and development as they affect or would affect the generality of Nigerians, understand the structure and functioning of economic institution, appreciate the role of public policies on national economy, develop the skills and also appreciate the basis for national economic decisions, become sensitized to participate actively in national economic advancement through entrepreneurship, capital market and so on. Other objectives include; understand the role and status of Nigeria and other African countries in the international economic relationships, appreciate the problems encountered by developing countries in their efforts towards economic advancement (NERDC, 2008).
Deducing from the above objectives for studying economics at the Senior Secondary School level, there is no gainsaying the fact that economics is the bedrock for individual and national development. This implies that knowledge of economic principles and concepts is important to every member of the society and the nation at large. However, the performance of students in Economics has been dwindling over the years (Ogeri, 2009). Research has also unveiled factors responsible for poor academic achievement in Economics. Among the variables identified include; lack and inappropriate application of learning resources and poor teaching method (Kaiadese, 2005, Adetayo, 2006 and Onuoha, 2010). Michael (2002) also noted that poor textbooks and lack of computer technology in schools are also responsible for poor performance of students in Economics. John Dewey emphasized over 100 years ago changes that would move schools away from authoritarian teacher-directed classrooms, to environment in which learning actualizes through active participation and real-life based experiences (Dewey, 1916 cited in Michael, 2002). The attempt to take care of poor achievement and motivation of students in Economics inspired the researcher to use this cooperative production of learning resources approach (CPLRA) to see how it can help to improve the academic achievement of students. In view of this, Cuban (2001) considers teacher as a vehicle for reforming educational practices, to be used as a vital tool in the teaching/learning processes.


According to Onwuka, (1996), teacher is one whose task is to design and guide the learning of a group of students in a classroom setting. Offorma, (2004) observed that a teacher creates learning environment for his students, selects contents, organizes activities, and selects teaching methodology and materials. The teacher interacts with students in the process of carrying out the plans and affects the important dimensions of the students’ achievement.
Adeyemi, (2008) described academic achievement as the scholastic standing of a student at a given moment which states individual abilities. Adeyemo further stated that student’s academic achievement can be explained in form of grades, obtained from tests, quiz or examination in courses/subjects taken. In Nigeria, the level of student’s academic achievement in the senior secondary school is determined mainly through internal and external examinations. Poor academic achievement according to Aremu, (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the examiner or tester and some other significance as falling below an expected standard.

The academic achievement of students in Economics to a large extent depends on a lot of factors including the teacher and the method of teaching adopted during instructional procedures. The method adopted should be one that can enable the teacher present the lesson effectively and at the same time give students’ maximum opportunity of participating actively in the learning process (Offorma, 2004). However, the researcher’s personal observation indicates that majority of students at the Senior Secondary School level do not show convincing interest and motivation in studying the subject and this could have affected their performance.


The breakdown of May/June SSCE 2010/2011 examination conducted by WAEC indicated an average failure rate of students in economics to be 72%, while that of NECO in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively shows the following percentage failure in economics as 69%, 57%, 78% and 50% respectively (Osuagwu, 2012). Onah (2011) saw the poor academic achievements as sources of worry to researchers, parents and society at large. The WAEC chief examiners report (2006-2011) revealed that students performed poorly in economics. WAEC (2006) analysis of percentage performance of candidate in economics for 2004, 2005 and 2006 revealed 22.26%, 20.20% and 15.71% failure level and the credit level percentage of 37.59%, 36.24% and 49.45% respectively for the years in reviewed.....

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