UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI CENTRAL EDUCATION ZONE, EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


There is a perceived trend of decline in the teaching of Social Studies in Nigeria schools today. This situation has been attributed to many factors one of which is unavailability and non-utilization of relevant related resources. Against this background that this study sought to assess the utilization of resources for effective implementation of social studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi Central Education Zone of Ebonyi State. It adopted descriptive survey design. Six research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Population of the study consists of ninety two teachers and thirteen thousand two hundred and thirty two students. A purposive and simple random sampling technique was used to select the entire 92 teachers and 384 students. The instruments used for data collection were Checklist titled “Checklist on Availability of Resources (CAR), Observational Schedule titled “Observational Schedule on Social Studies Resource Utilization (OSSSRU), Questionnaire titled “Social Studies Resource Utilization (SSRUQ) and Documentary Evidence of available Social Studies teachers in schools. The instruments were validated by relevant experts in the field and its reliability co-efficient were ascertained. Data collected were analyzed using Percentages, mean and standard deviation while t-test of independent sample was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that, most teachers that teach social studies are not qualified and not social studies specialist, vital instructional materials and facilities are not adequately available and that available ones are not judiciously utilized. The findings equally revealed that social studies teachers do not use method prescribed by the curriculum for the implementation of the curriculum and that qualification influences teacher’s use of methods and instructional materials in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Ebonyi Central Education Zone. The null hypotheses tested showed that there was significant difference in the use of curriculum prescribed methods by the NCE holder and B.ED holder in Social Studies and that there was significant difference in the utilization of instructional material by the teachers and students in junior secondary schools. It was also observed that there was no significant difference in teachers and students responses on the utilization of facilities and teacher’ s use of curriculum prescribed methods in the implementation of social studies curriculum in junior secondary schools. These findings were discussed with appropriate conclusion and recommendations especially with respect to provision of resources to the schools and teachers and students utilizing the available resources in the school judiciously for effective implementation of Social Studies curriculum.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Resources
Concept of Resource Utilization
Concept of Curriculum
Concept of Curriculum Implementation
Concept, Nature, Goals and Scope of Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum
Theoretical Framework
Bruner’s Theory of Instruction (Bruner, 1966)
Resource-Based Theory (Coase, 1937)
Review of Empirical Studies
Quality and Quantity of Teachers for Social Studies Curriculum implementation,
Facilities Available for Effective Social Studies Curriculum Implementation
Instructional materials and effective implementation Social Studies Curriculum
Available Curriculum for Teaching and learning of Social Studies
Qualification of teachers and effective implementation of Social Studies Curriculum
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instruments
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of the Findings
Summary of the Study
Educational Implications of the Study
Limitations of the Study
Recommendations
Suggestions for further Studies
REFERENCES
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
It is a widely acknowledged opinion that the success or otherwise of any enterprise (be it private or public) among other things depends largely on the availability and utilization of relevant related resources by individuals or organizations. Resources whether human, material (tangible or intangible) are recognized vital facets of any successful human endeavour including education. Resources refer to materials, services, staff, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefits and in the process may be consumed by firm or organization (Kaufinan & Schneider, 2004). It is a productive factor required to accomplish an activity. These factors include land, labour and capital. Other factors are environment, management, time, energy, among others. Typically, resources could be seen as something that can be used to help achieve an aim especially a book, equipments, materials, etc that provide information for teachers and students or personal qualities such as imagination that help one deal with difficult situations (Hornby, 2010). Resources are characterized by utility, limited availability, and potential for depletion or consumption (Miller & Spoolman, 2011). This shows that resources are what is available and can be utilized by people to achieve desired outcomes. Resources in education encompasses all persons and things capable of conveying information, values, processes, experiences and techniques that can be used to actively engaged learners in the learning process (Akpochafo, 2003). The effective teaching and learning of any subject in schools require diverse human, material and intangible resources.


Human resources refer generally to “people that staff and operate an organization” (Inyiagu, 2005: 11) as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization. It is also the organizational functions that deal with the people basically in form of compensation, hiring, performance, management, and training (William, 2013). Human resources deal with knowledge, skills, and motivation of people within an occupational setting. In the context of this study, human resources refer to teachers who are the agents of curriculum implementation. Without human effects, no organization (education inclusive) can achieve its goals. Therefore, this resource is called ‘human resources’, which is the most significant resource of any organization. As observed by Afolabi (2005), no matter how beautiful the programs and assets of an institution are, without the teachers, attainment of the institutional goals and objectives would be difficult. Material resources are any quantifiable material used to complete a task such as equipments; machines etc that often replace human input or resources in organizations (Miller & Spoolman, 2011). In the field of education, material resources consist of the major tools the learner employs in transmitting knowledge. For example, environmental resources, printed materials which could be textbooks or semi-text (i.e. chart, maps, pictures, photographs which are commercially made) and non-texts which includes models, real objects, video, films and audio aids (Adekunle, 2008). Nwaubani and Ezegbe (2008) equally added that facilities in the learning environment such as furniture, electricity, workshops, equipments, etc are also parts of material resources. In addition to these, Akinsolu (2012) observes that other creatures of human ingenuity or important items of discovery including archaeological findings constitute material resources. In the context of this study, material resources refer to available and utilized tools used by teachers and students in teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools. These materials if not available and utilized may affect the implementation of Social Studies curriculum in schools in Nigeria.
Intangible resources, on their part, are those assets that have no physical existence and are based mainly on information and knowledge (Aurello & Baragas, 2011). Factors like institution image, teacher qualification, and technological knowhow, method of teaching and time are classified as intangible resources. Intangible resources are characterized by invisibility, difficult to quantify, not recorded in account, appreciation with use unlike material resources that depreciate with use, non-existence of any market, slow build up, vaguely defined property rights and nil sales values. These characteristics show that there is need for proper utilization of intangible resources in order to achieve the purpose of teaching and learning. In the context of this study, intangible resources refer to methods of teaching utilize by teachers for effective implementation of Social Studies curriculum.


Social Studies is one of the basic education subjects in Nigerian education system. Social Studies as school subject deals with the study of man in relationship with his social and physical environment (Nnamani, 2009). Environment is anything that surrounds man which influences man’s thinking and ideas positively or negatively. The environment of man could be social, economics, politics, cultural and physical (Dubey in Ndan, 2002). Social environment refers to people in our society and their relationship with each other, how man interact, provide his needs and solve his problems while physical environment refers to physical things that surrounds man such as building, atmosphere, plains, mountains, and among others that influences his behaviour positively or negatively (Odedele & Egotanwa, 2006). However, Engle (2003) defines Social Studies as a discipline on its own right, drawing knowledge from all the social science disciplines dealing directly with social ideas and problems as they occur to the average citizen. Similarly Jiboku (2002) observes that Social Studies is the aspect of learning which deals with how to get on with one’s environment, both physical and human which involves development of...

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