DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD AND DOMESTIC WATER DEMAND IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

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ABSTRACT

The study evaluates demographic characteristics of household and their relationship with household daily water demand in Enugu metropolis. The study also analyzes how demographic characteristics of household relate with household water demand in three residential areas, in Enugu metropolis. Both primary and secondary data were obtained from 400 households using opened ended questionnaire and an in-house observation guide across the three residential areas of Enugu metropolis, Enugu. The obtained data was statistically analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple-linear regression, step-wise regression model and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that household size and age of household (35.1%), household size and sex of the household (38.0%) and household size (46.1%) were the predictors of household daily water demand for high, middle and low residential areas respectively. Household water demand does significant differ across the various residential densities in the study area at significant of p>0.05. The findings indicate that water is not used efficiently in the metropolis. The findings strengthen the need for stringent measures to attain sustainable urban household water demand management and water institutional capacity should be given special attention. The study recommends for policy of using a modern devices and tools will enable the rationalization of domestic water consumption; a continuous and regular awareness campaigns, through which basic information and facts about the rare water resources in Enugu metropolis; ESWC should ensure that there is proper and regular distribution or supply of water to all the neighbourhoods in the study area so as not to neglect equity issues; provision of more and adequate infrastructure for easy supply and allocate adequate funds for improved services by the government; residential domestic water in the study area should be metered or price volumetrically because its probability of inducing economic efficiency is high than that of public pricing and the charge will be based on the amount of water delivered.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents
List of Figure
List of Tables
List of Appendix

Chapter One:
1.0       General Introduction
1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Goal and Objectives
1.3.1    Goal
1.3.2    Objectives
1.4       Research Question
1.5       Statement of Hypotheses
 1.6      Scope of Study
1.8       Limitation of Study
1.7       Significance of Study
1.9       Definition of Terms

Chapter Two: Theoretical Framework and Literature Review
2.1       Theoretical Framework
2.1.1    Demand Theory
2.1.2    Supply Theory
 2.1.3   Interaction between Supply and Demand
2.1.4    The Economic Theory Based on Water Demand
2.1.5    Neoclassical Theory Applied to Residential Water Demand
2.1.6    Average Cost versus Marginal Cost
2.1.7    Water Demand Management
2.1.8    Water Efficiency and Water Conservation
2.1.9    Factors Affecting Water Demand Estimation
2.1.10 Conceptual Frame Work
2.2       Literature Review
2.2.1    Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Weather Variables
2.2.2    Attitudinal Characteristics
2.2.3    Pricing Policy Measures
2.3.4    Non-Pricing Policy Measures
2.2.4    Summary

Chapter Three:
3.0       The Study Area
3.1       Location and Boundaries
3.2       Historical background of Enugu
3.3       Climate and Vegetation
3.4       Topography and Soil
3.5       Existing Land Use Development Pattern
3.6       Population Distribution
3.7       Economy and Employment
3.8       The Urban Residential Space in Enugu
3.8.1    Low Density Areas
3.8.2    Medium Density Area
3.8.3    High Density Areas
3.9       Enugu State Water Corporation
3.10     Essence of the study to the study area

Chapter Four: Methods and Procedures
4.1       Research Design
4.2       Source of Data Collection
4.2.1   Secondary Data
4.2.1.1 Published Materials
4.2.1.2 Unpublished Materials
4.2.2    Primary Data
4.2.2.1 Personal Observation
4.2.2.2 Interview Method
4.2.2.3 Questionnaire survey and Method
4.3       Sample population
4.4       Sampling Techniques Sample Size
4.5       Description of the Instrument Used in Data Collection (Questionnaire)
4.6       Description of the Statistics used in the Study
4.7.1    Descriptive Statistics
4.7.2    Inferential Statistics
4.7.2.1 Multiple Linear Regression Technique
4.7.2.2 Step-Wise Regression Model
4.7.2.3 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
4.7      Key Variables used for the Hypotheses
4.8       Validation and Reliability of Instruments

CHAPTER FIVE: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
5.2       Primary Sources
5.2.1    Number of Questionnaire Administered and Number Returned
5.3       Socio-Economic Status of Respondents
5.3.1 Sex of Respondents
5.3.2 Age Groups of Respondents
5.3.3 Number of Households per Compound
5.3.4 Household Size
5.3.5 Academic Background of Respondents
5.3.6 Marital Status of Respondents
5.3.7 Occupation of Respondents
5.3.8 Monthly Income of Respondents
5.3.9 House Type
5.4       Assessment on Domestic Water Demand
5.4.1    Sources of Water
5.4.2    Estimation of Quantity of Water Used Daily
5.4.3    Estimation of Amount Spent on Water Monthl
5.5       Secondary data
5.5.1 Population of Enugu Metropolis by sex
5.5.2    Percentage Distribution of Persons by Sex, (2010)
5.5.3    Distribution of Population by Age Groups and Sex
5.5.4    Percentage Distribution of Persons in Households by Age Group, 2007
5.5.5    Average Persons per Household, 2006 – 2010
5.5.6    Percentage Distribution of Persons Aged 15 years and Over by Marital Status, 2007
5.5.7    Education Level of Household Head, 200910
5.5.8    Percentage Distribution of Households Monthly Income/Allowances, 2007
5.6       Test for hypothesis
5.6.1    Hypothesis 1
5.6.2    Hypothesis 2
5.6.3    Hypothesis 3
5.7       Discussion of Findings
5.7.1    The demographic characteristics of households in Enugu metropolis
5.6.2    The influence of household demographic characteristics on household water demand among the residential densities
5.6.3 The extent each household demographic characteristics influence household water demand
5.6.4    The household demographic characteristics influence on water demand differs across various residential densities in Enugu metropolis
5.7       Summary of Findings

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       Recommendations and Conclusion
6.1       Recommendation
6.2       Conclusion

References

CHAPTER ONE
1.0      General Introduction
1.1      Background of Study
Adequate and safe water supply is one of the basic services which influences economic progress of human settlements and the health of the dwellers. Although household water demands constitute the least water use in the world, which is about 6% (Cunningham and Cunningham 2004), it is however, a use that has no clearly defined substitute. It is thus a critical demand that is not negotiable. This is because domestic water use, including drinking, cooking, washing and general sanitation entails a number of health implications.
The world population at December 2012 stands at 7 billion and Africa is a home to around 900 million people, a number that has been projected to grow to 1.2 billion by 2025 and to 2 billion by 2050 (AFIDEP, 2012). With a population growth rate of more than 2% for most countries, the continent of Africa has the fastest growing population in the world with high youthful population (UNEP, 2010). At the moment, about 40% of Africa’s populations live in the cities and urban communities. This is expected to increase due to the fast growing rate in rural-urban migration reaching 50% by the year 2020 (Brandes et al, 2005).
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and its population continues to grow rapidly, increasing the demand for public utility like water. This increase in population is high in the urban areas. Large numbers of those who lack access to improved water supply infrastructure live in urban areas (World Bank, 2009).  The increased in urban population mounts a lot of pressure on the available water infrastructure, the total volume of water available in surface and groundwater resources seems not to be sufficient to meet current water demands. Accordingly, Bates (2008) observed a growing demand for water to meet urban household needs in developing countries. There is a large group of households who live in the expanding slums of cities through the developing world earning incomes of less than 150 US dollars per month (Whittington, 2009). Many of these households currently have neither private piped connections nor the income to obtain them. Nigeria’s rapid urbanization and growth have not been accompanied by an adequate increase in the delivery of Water Supply and Sanitation services (WSS). World Health Organisation (WHO) estimated that between 1990 and 2008, the percentage of urban drinking water coverage has fell by 4 percent, while the percentage of urban sanitation coverage has fell by 3 percent during the same period (WHO/UNICEF, 2010). Jiburum (1999) confirmed this inadequacy in pipe-borne water supply in Enugu urban and showed that the State Water Corporation supplied only 49.2 percent of the population with potable water.
Nigerian government in their effort to address water problems in recent times launched a National Water Supply and Sanitation Policy (NWSS). Efforts and initiatives have included the completion of hydrogeological mapping of the country, establishment of water-quality laboratories, encouraging private-sector development, and expanding rural WSS systems. In spite of the considerable investment of Governments in Nigeria over the years in this essential human requirement, a large population still does not have access to water in adequate quantity and quality. Water for various uses must not be of the same quality. Thus, various scholars have noted that securing adequate amount of water for daily use by household in both urban and rural areas in developed and developing countries is a major challenge for all governments (Brandes et al, 2005; Njogu, 2009; Brooks, and Brandes, 2011). The demand and supply of water in relation to per capita income is a thing of concern in developing countries like Nigeria, especially where demand does not correspond with generating capacity of the supply. But the gap between water demand and actual supply has widened in Nigeria’s urban centers despite the continual efforts made to develop the nation’s vast resource. Oyebande (1975) estimated that less than 0.5 percent of the total available water use and the per capita water supply for all uses stood at 6 litres per day. According to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Annual Abstract of Statistics report published in 2012, only about 14.9 % of households in Enugu State source their major drinking and cooking water from treated pipe-borne water supply while 8.1% of household source their major drinking and cooking water from untreated pipe-borne water supply in 2007. The same survey also shows that 18.4% of households obtain water from vendors; 30.8% from rivers and streams and 8.1% and 13.6% from protected and unprotected wells respectively. In 2008, only 12.4% and 0.9% households source their major drinking and cooking water from treated and untreated pipe-borne water supply respectively. The emerging scenario is that majority represented by at least 90% of households in Enugu state obtain water from pollution prone sources. Furthermore, National Bureau of Statistics, Annual Abstract of Statistics Report (NBS, 2012) shows that the percentage of households in Enugu State relying on vendor services for water supply is about 27.0%, a figure higher than the national average of 1.6% and is ranked first in Nigeria, while the second state has 14.3% of household sourcing water from vendors; the third is a distant 8.5% households exemplifying wide disparity, further more households with access to treated piped water is only 12.4%, again lower than the national average of 3.9%; perhaps... 

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