EFFECT OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA (GUAVA) ON THE BIOCHEMICAL AND HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF ALBINO RATS

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ABSTRACT


This study was to investigate the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leaves on the biochemical and haematological indices of liver functions in rats, and compare the effect of the extracts on body weight of albino rats on weekly interval for four weeks. A total of eight four rats were divide into two experimental group of thirty six rats per group and one was treated with aqueous extract while the other was treated with methanolic extract also a common control group made of twelve rats. Each experimental group was made up of three treatment sub-group which consists of different concentration levels of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg. A sub-group consists of three replicate of four rats per replicate. Blood samples were collected from rats in each replicate of treatment and control groups and tested for various biochemical and haematological parameter using standard method. The result of the study showed that there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP). Whereas there was a significant decrease (P > 0.05) in most of the concentration levels of serum cholesterol compared to the control. However, a significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed from the result obtained from packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) and haemoglobin (Hb). The body weight of the rats generally dropped as a result of oral administration of P. guajava extract. Previous data tend to suggest that a moderate ingestion of the extracts is beneficial to the body although the increase in the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and ACP) tend to suggest a dysfunction in the physiology of the liver. However the beneficial effect extends to the fact that it can be used in the treatment of obesity, blood diseases and building the immune system due to its ability to lower the body weight and also increase all the haematological parameter.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Justification of the Study
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Literature Review
1.4.1    Origin and Morphology of Psidium guajava
1.4.2    Use of Psidium guajava leaves
1.5       Biochemical Indices in Man
1.5.1    Acid phosphate (ACP)
1.5.2    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
1.5.3    Alkaline phosphotase (ALT)
1.5.4    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
1.5.5    Serum cholesterol
1.6       Haematological Indices

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1       Identification and Collection of Plant Material
2.2       Preparation of Plant Extract
2.3       Procurement, Management of Experimental Animals
2.4       Determination of LD50 (Lethal dose)
2.5       Experimental Design
2.6       Collection of Blood Sample
2.7       Biochemical Analysis
2.7.1    Assay for acid phosphatase (ACP)
2.7.2    Assay for alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
2.7.3    Assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
2.7.4    Assay for aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
2.7.5    Assay for serum cholesterol
2.8       Haematological Analysis
2.8.1    Haemoglobin estimation
2.8.2    Blood haematocrit (packed cell volume (PCV))
2.8.3    White blood cell count
2.8.4    Red blood cell count
2.9       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS
3.1       Effect of the extracts Psidium guajava on the biochemical indices of albino rats
3.1.1    Weekly effect of P. guajava on alanine aminotransferase, ALT
3.1.2    Weekly effect of P. guajava on aspartate aminotransferase, AST
3.1.3    Weekly effect of P. guajava on alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
3.1.4    Weekly effect of P. guajava on acid phosphatase
3.1.5    Weekly effect of P. guajava on serum cholesterol level
3.2       Effect of Psidium guajava extracts on Haematological indices of albino rats
3.2.1    Weekly effect of P. guajava on packed cell volume (PCV)
3.2.2    Weekly effect of P. guajava on red blood cell (RBC)
3.2.3    Weekly effect of P. guajava on white blood cell (WBC)
3.2.4    Weekly effect of P. guajava on haemoglobin (Hb)
3.3       Weekly effect of P. guajava on body weight of albino rats

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1 Introduction
Psidium guajava is a plant belonging to the family Myrtaceae. It is grown in all parts of the world and cultivated for its leaf, fruit, bark, fleshy calyx root twigs or seeds. The plant has been found to thrive on a wide range of soil conditions and tolerate a pH range from 4.5 to 9.4, propagates easily, and bears fruit relatively quickly. It is also salt resistant (Morton, 1987).

Psidium guajava is commonly called Guava although it has several names in many part of the world. Such names include Bayabas, Jambu burung, Lal peyara, advaba, madhuria, kalimbahin, malakabeng etc. However in Nigeria it is known as gwaabaa (hausa) woba (Efik), ugwoba (Igbo), and guata (Yoruba) (Iwu, 1993).


The plant can be seriously attacked by pest and disease. Such pests include citrus flat mite, bark-eating caterpillars, red-banded thrips, aphids etc, which attack different part of the plant whereas diseases of guava plant include mucor rot, alga spotting, stem-end rot, etc. (Morton, 1987). Phytochemical analysis of the fruit shows that it contains vitamin A, iron, calcium and phosphorous, manganese with oxalic and malic acids, saponin, oleanolic acid, flavonoids, guaijavarine and quercetin (Iwu, 1993; Arima and Danno, 2002). Whereas the fruit skin is rich in Ascorbic acid and carbonyl compound which gives it the strong odor. The chemical analysis of the leaves shows that it contain essential oil with different component which include malic acid, menthol, guayavolic acid, flavonoids, and quercetin. In addition the leaves also contain fat, resin, mineral salt, tannin, chlorophyll, cellulose, etc. (Nadkarni and Nadkarni, 1999). Whereas the root analysis shows that it contains salt, carbohydrate, tannin, sterols etc (Iwu 1993). However, Okwu and Ekeke (2003) analysis of the twig shows that it contains essential elements which include calcium, magnesium, phosphorous potassium and sodium. In addition, it contains the micro elements like zinc, iron, copper etc. (Arima and Danno, 2002).


1.2 Justification of the study
Due to the medicinal uses of P. guajava and its potency in alternative medicine, it is therefore necessary to investigate the physiological effects of this plant material on biochemical and haematological indices using an animal model in order to make an inference on the safety of its consumption by humans.


1.3 Objectives of the study

The objectives were to:

1        Compare the effects of the extracts on the body weight of the albino rats

2        Determine the effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leaves on the biochemical indices of albino rats.
3        Determine the effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leaves on the hematological indices on Albino rats.

1.4 Literature Review

1.4.1 Origin and morphology of Psidium guajava

Psidium guajava originated from Central America and Mexico, although today the plant is distributed to Africa and to the Pacific region. It is a low evergreen shrub with branches and downy twigs. It has thin smooth-copper colored bark which peels off and show its greenish layer beneath. The leaves are green due to chlorophyll pigment in them, short-petioled, oval or oblong and irregular in outline. It has conspicuous parallel veins. It has petals which are easily shed and stamen with pale-yellow anthers. The fruit has strong, sweet, musky odor. It may be...


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