QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS AND SULPHUR CONTENT IN NIGERIAN PETROLEUM PRODUCTS USING AAS AND GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

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ABSTRACT


Eighteen trace heavy metals were quantitatively analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy; five samples of petroleum products were collected from Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company. Three different preparation methods were adopted for the determination of trace and heavy metals present in the various petroleum products viz: Direct sample aspiration into the flame after solvent dilution, Total acid (wet) digestion of the sample, Ashing of the sample and dissolution with an appropriate acid. Sample treatment with organic acid prior to aspiration proved to be more reliable and it gave good results for trace and heavy metals in petroleum products except for kerosene sample, where most of the elements responded positively to ashing preparation method. The level of eighteen elements analyzed in Petrol (PMS), Kerosene (DPK), Gas Oil (AGO), LPFO and Residual fuel are shown in table 3.7 which revealed that Potassium(120 mg/l, 340 mg/l, 120 mg/l, 2900 mg/l, 2050 mg/l) and Sodium (260 mg/l, 180 mg/l, 160 mg/l, 1800 mg/l, 1200 mg/l) are the most abundant elements in both the five sample under study followed by Iron(1.20 mg/l, 1.74 mg/l, 1.25 mg/l, 0.60 mg/l), Manganese(1.28 mg/l, 1.04 mg/l, 1.46 mg/l, 6.6 mg/l4.8 mg/l), Lead(0.50 mg/l, 0.16 mg/l, 0.40 mg/l, 27.8 mg/l, 24.6 mg/l) and Aluminium (0.42 mg/l, 1.06 mg/l, 0.32 mg/l, 0.82 mg/l, 24.6 mg/l). The concentration ranges of trace heavy metals analyzed are within the permissible levels set by World Health Organisation.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of contents
List of figures
List of tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction
1.1 Basic Principle/ Components of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
1.2 Literature review
1.3 Crude Oil / Composition
1.3.1Types of Hydrocarbon
1.3.2    Classification of Petroleum
1.3.3    Chemistry of Petroleum
1.3.4    Origin of Petroleum
1.3.5    Biogenic theory
1.3.6    Abiogenic theory
1.3.7    Petroleum movement/migration
1.4 History/Exploration of Petroleum in Nigeria
1.5 Petroleum refining process
1.5.1    Distillation (Fractionation)
1.5.2    Atmospheric distillation
1.5.3    Vacuum distillation
1.5.4    Reforming
1.5.5    Cracking
1.5.6    Catalytic cracking
1.5.7    Fluid catalytic cracking
1.5.8    Thermal cracking
1.5.9    Hydrocracking
1.5.10 Alkylation
1.5.11 Isomerization
1.5.12 Polymerization
1.5.13 Hydro-treating and sulphur plants
1.5.14 Sulphur recovery plants
1.6       Petroleum products
1.6.1Gasoline
1.6.2    Kerosene
1.6.3    Petroleum Diesel
1.6.4    Fuel Oil
1.6.5    Lubricating Oil
1.6.6 Wax
1.6.7    Petrolatum
1.6.8    Asphalt
1.7       Environmental effects
1.8       Aim and Objectives
1.9       Justification

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Materials and Methods
2.1       Materials
2.2       Methods
2.2.1    Sampling
2.2.3    Chemicals /Reagents
2.2.4    Determination Physicochemical properties of Nig. Petroleum products
Determination of Density/Specific Gravity/ API
Determination of Viscosity
Determination Aniline point
Determination of Total Sulphur
Determination of water Content
2.2.5    Sample Digestion method
2.2.6    Dilution of Sample in an Organic Solvent
2.2.7    Acid (Wet)Digestion
2.2.8    Ashing Digestion
2.2.9    Determination of Trace Metals

CHAPTER THREE
Results and Discussion
3.1       Results
3.2       Discussion

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Conclusion and Recommendations
4.1       Conclusions
4.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW


1.1        Introduction



Crude oil contains mainly hydrocarbons especially alkanes, naphthenes, and aromatics (Odebunmi and Adeniyi,2004),It contains also some nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur containing compounds along with trace amounts of elements especially nickel, vanadium, titanium, iron, cadmium etc(Odebunmi and Adeniyi,2004; Olajire and Oderinde,1996). The presence of trace metals and non-metals in the crude oil and petroleum products is destructive, especially in the refining process(Oderinde, 1989).Indigenous petroleum refineries, petroleum depots and filling stations as well as environment in general require enough information on the concentration of trace and heavy metals in Nigerian petroleum products because of its detrimental effects on both equipment and environment. The trace/heavy metals composition in petroleum products can be used for the identification of environmental fuel pollution. Exhaust from various machine including cars, buses, generators, etc contributed immensely in so many environmental problems due to the concentration of some trace/heavy metals in it.Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) is a well-established extremely valuable technique for the determination of trace amounts of metals. Since its introduction by Walsh, the method has gone through a number of developmental stages aiming at obtaining an increase in reliability, ease of operation and, above all, improvement in the limit of detection .AAS is an analytical method based on...


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