PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF POST ELECTORAL VIOLECE: A STUDY OF ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

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ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess the public perception of the causes and, consequences of post election violence in Zaria local government area. The research instrument that was used in data collection was questionnaire which was complemented by in-depth interview. One hundred (100) questionnaires were administered, but only ninety four (94) were returned. The data was analyzed using percentages and frequencies, with the aid of Statistical Package for the social sciences (SPSS).The outcome clearly shows that, rigging of election results was a major cause of post election violence. Furthermore, the finding exhibits dissatisfaction with results, religious sentiments, corruption, poverty and absence of laws on post election violence were also the causes of post election violence. The study also reveals some consequences of post election violence. These include destruction of lives, destruction of properties, displacement, distortion of peace and enmity.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Introduction
Statement of research problem
Aims and objectives of the study
Research Questions
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of the concepts

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Introduction
Nature of post election violence
Causes of post election violence
Effects of post election violence
Solutions to post election violence
Theoretical framework

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction
Location of the study
Types and sources of data
Population of the study and sampling technique
Instrument for data collections
Data analysis
Problems encountered in the field

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Introduction
Socio demography data of the respondents
Nature of post election violence
Main target of the violence
Weapons used during the violence
Causes of post election violence
Consequences of post election violence
Possible solutions to post election violence
Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUTION AND RECOMENDATION
Introduction
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendations
References
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE
  INTRODUCTION
1.1              BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
An electoral process is an alternative to violence as a means of achieving good governance. When an electoral process is perceived as unfair, unresponsive, or corrupt, its political legitimacy is compromised and stakeholders are motivated to go outside of the established norms to achieve their objectives (Jeff, 2006).  Most often, violence becomes the only way. Electoral violence is the act of or threats of coercion, intimidation, or physical harm perpetrated to affect an electoral process or that arise as in the context of electoral completion. When perpetrated to affect an electoral process, violence may be employed to influence the process of election; Such as effort to delay, disrupt or derail a poll and to influence the outcome; the determining of winners in competitive races for political office or to secure approval of referendum questions.
Electoral violence is a sub-type of political violence in which actors employ coercion in an instrumental way to advance their interests or achieve specific political ends. Electoral violence includes acts, such as assassination of opponents or spontaneous fist cuffs between rival groups of supporters and threats, coercion and intimidation of opponents, voters, or election officials. Election violence has become a global phenomenon associated mostly with developing and under developed countries like Nigeria (Magdaleno 2012).
The Nigerian state is not alien to electoral violence which can be traced as far back as the pre independence elections. Contestants in Nigeria can go to any length to rig and win elections even if it means to break the states monopoly of violence to deploy terror to win elections. At the concluded 2015 general elections in Nigeria, the South South part of Nigeria witnessed different levels of mayhem and the destruction of lives and property. On the other hand the Northern and South Western states witnessed minimal electoral violence unlike previous years where violence was more in the North.  (LadanBaki I.S.2016).

All elections in Nigeria are marred with one form of violence or the other at various stages. Ladan (2006) opined that, violence has become part of the political culture in Nigeria such that all elections are virtually violence-ridden, that violence is manifest in all the three states of the election process: pre-election, during elections, and post-election period.According to Iraboh (2011). Electoral reform act 2006 was one of the policies promulgated to check the phenomenon of election violence in Nigeria and its implementation committee was headed by Justice Uwais which was saddled with the responsibility to make recommendations on how to restore sanity to the Nigeria’s electoral process. Still some crisis where noticeable and manifested by bloody violence which almost tore Nigeria apart in general and Zaria Local Government in particular and led to the death of many innocent Nigerians. And cause un-ended ethno religion conflicts’ in Southern Kaduna State.


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