THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN THE PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CASES
TABLE OF STATUTES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Scope and Limitation of the Research
1.4       Aim and Objectives of the Research
1.5       Research Methodology
1.6       Literature Review
1.7       Justification of the Research
1.8       Organizational Layout

CHAPTER TWO
PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Philosophical Foundation of Human Rights
2.3       Historical Development of Human Rights
2.4       Evolution of Human Rights in Nigeria
2.5       Contending Perspectives on Human Rights
2.6       Institutionalization of Human Rights
2.7       Customary International Law

CHAPTER THREE
INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
3.1       Introduction
3.2.      International Mechanisms for the Implementation of Human Rights
3.3       Regional Mechanism for the Implementation of Human Rights Protection
3.3.1    The African Human Rights Mechanism for Implementation of human Rights
            1.   The African Charter on Human and Peoples‟ Rights
            2.   African Charter on Human and Peoples‟ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa
            3.   The ECOWAS Mechanism for the Protection of Human Rights
3.4       The Inter-American Human Rights Mechanisms
3.5       Limitations on the Human Rights Treaty Obligations of States
3.5.1    Reservation to Human Rights Treaties
3.5.2    Derogations
3.5.3    Domestic Enforcement of Human Rights
3.6       Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR
JUSTICIABLE RIGHTS IN NIGERIA
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Justiciable Rights in Nigeria
4.2.1    Right to Fair Hearing
4.2.2    Right to Life
4.2.3    Right to the Dignity of the Human Person
4.2.4    Right to Personal Liberty
4.2.5    Right to Private and Family Life
4.2.6    Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion
4.2.7    Right to Freedom of Expression and the Press
4.2.8    Right to Peaceful Assembly and Association
4.2.9    Right to Freedom of Movement
4.2.10  Right to Freedom from Discrimination
4.2.11  Right to Acquire and own immovable property anywhere in Nigeria
4.3       Enforcement Mechanism under the Nigerian Constitution
4.3.1    Constitutional Measure
4.3.2    Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules
4.3.3    Limitation of the Application of the Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules

CHAPTER FIVE
THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Non -Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
5.3       The Role of Non -Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
5.3.1    Human Rights Protection and Promotion
5.3.2    Establishment and Accessibility of Legal Procedures
5.3.3    Exposure of Human Rights Violation:
5.3.4    Humanitarian Assistance to Victims of Human Rights Violations
5.3.5    Creating Legal and Organizational Conditions
5.4       The National Action Plan for the Promotion and Protection of Human Right (NAP)
5.5       Human Rights Protection and the Police

CHAPTER SIX
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION AND THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS
6.1       Introduction
6.2       The Role of National Human Rights Commission
6.3       Structure of National Human Rights Commission
6.4.      An Overview of the Activities of the Commission

CHAPTER SEVEN
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
7.1       Summary
7.2       Findings
7.3       Recommendations
BIBLIOGRAPHY



ABSTRACT


This Dissertation aimed at examining the legal framework for the promotion and protection of Human Rights in Nigeria in relation to the existing constitutive international instruments on human rights. In this regard, the sources of information relied upon here are relevant text materials, articles in journal publication, judicial authorities, conference papers, newspapers, magazines and internet materials. However, the justification for this research is that “human rights” in Nigeria has become not only a topical issue but the language of both the oppressors and the oppressed, yet little is known of its meaning and ramification. For example the right to fair hearing is not exclusive to either the accused or the prosecution. Does fair hearing means opportunity to be heard or the inalienable right to be heard? Further the denial of economic rights of human being which is presently being experienced in Nigeria is tantamount to denial of right to life because it is this means of livelihood that keeps a man alive. This unfortunate event is quite worrisome and constituted the statement of problem of this research because consequently there is moral decadence, corruption, lack of patriotisms and insecurity in Nigeria. On this note, the finding of this research (among others) was that there existed a weak institutional infrastructure for the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria. For example there is no specific law regulating the activities of non-government human rights organizations. Although it must be mentioned here that a bill to that effect is pending before the National Assembly. Finally, it was recommended that various governmental bodies in Nigeria must be strengthened and made effective by specific regulatory Act especially the National Human Rights Commission.




CHAPTER ONE


GENERAL INTRODUCTION


1.1              Background to the Study


This work examines the role of Non-Governmental Organisation in the promotion and protection of Human Rights in Nigeria. The importance attached to the concept of human rights has assumed phenomenal dimension since the Second World War when it became clear that universal respect for human rights isCondicio sine qua non for world peace and process. At the local level, the malevolent dictatorship of military juntas sensitized Nigerians to their human rights and the need to defend them. This era of military dictatorship also witnessed an upsurge in the emergence of non-governmental human rights organization across the country particularly in the South.

The expression “human rights” in its widest connotation embraces those civil, political, economic, social, cultural, group, solidarity, and developmental rights which are considered indispensable to a meaningful human existence. “Right”, here is used in composite sense and not in the strict legal sense. Legal human rights are those human rights that are guaranteed by positive law (lexlata). Thus, Osita Eze defines human rights as representing demands or claims which individuals or groups make on society some of which are protected by law and have become part of ex lata while others remain aspirations to be attained in future.1

Human rights are inherent rights to be enjoyed by all human beings of the global village and not gifts to be withdrawn, withheld or granted at some one‟s whim or will. In this sense, they.....


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