THE FAMACHA METHOD AS A TOOL FOR SELECTING TREATMENT OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN GOATS


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ABSTRACT

The FAMACHA system was first developed in South Africa and it has been successfully tested in different geographic area where Haemonchus contortus is the major gastrointestinal (GI) helminth of sheep. The present study was aimed at using the FAMACHA method as a tool for selective treatment of Haemonchus contortusinfection in goats. Each study animal was monthly subjected to blood and faecal sample collection, and all the animals were scored on a 1-5 scale with particular attention to the colour of ocular mucous membranes. The parasitological data included numbers of nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), faecal culture L3 larvae, packed cell volume (PCV), and FAMACHA eye-colour score estimates, along with animal performance (body weight change). There were 5 species of nematodes present in goats with Haemonchus contortusbeing the most prevalent (54–73%), followed by

Trichostrongylusspp (10-20%), Oesophagostomumspp (7-10%), Strongyloidesspp (4-8%) and

Bunostomumspp (3-4%). The nematode infection (natural infection) showed that all the animals were positive for faecal egg, with the highest infection occurring during the raining season. Correlations between FAMACHA and PCV, FAMACHA and BW, EPG and PCV, EPG and BW, as well as FAMACHA and EPG, PCV and BW were all highly significant. (P <0.001).

Faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) conducted on all farms visited confirmed the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics, including imported albendazole, locally made albendazole 1, 2 and 3, Imported and locally made Levamisole and Ivermectin. Initially, high levels of resistance to all the benzimidazole group were found with percentage reduction of (65.90%, 93.81%, 59.94%, and -12.72%) respectively. While the levamisole, both imported and locally made had an efficacy of (98.5% and 99.5%), Ivermectin both injectable and drench had an efficacy of 99.51 and 97.45) respectively. Individual FECRT were also conducted on 4 goat flocks, 2 commercial and 2 local farms. There were 8 treatment groups in each of these farms. All the 8 drugs were 100% effective against Haemonchus contortusin the 2 local farm. For commercial farm 1, Ivermectin drenched and injectable showed 100% and 99% effectiveness respectively against all worm species found, Imported and Locally made levamisole had 100% and 90% reduction respectively, Imported Albendazole had 94% reduction while the locally made albendazole (1,2 and 3) reduced faecal egg counts by 70%, 94% and 94%, respectively while for commercial farm 2 Ivermectin drenched and injectable showed 96% and 100% effectiveness respectively against all worm species found, imported and locally made Levamisole had 99% reduction each, imported Albendazole had a negative reduction of -35%, locally made Albendazole (2) had 97% efficacy while locally made albendazole (3) also had a negative reduction of -291%. It was therefore concluded that the FAMACHA method can be used by farmers in Nigeria as an on-farm tool to identify anaemic goats and give a guide on goats that need to be treated with anthelminthic particularly in condition of haemonchosis.





CHAPTER ONE

1INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of Study

Sheep and goat dairy production has a prominent role in the economy of several countries. However, they are influenced by several factors such as breeding methods, infectious and parasitic diseases (Park and Haenlein, 2006). Among the latter, gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle infection, caused by different genera of nematodes e.g, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus,Oesophagostomum and Strongyloides remain one of the main constraints to sheep and goat production both in temperate and tropical countries (Rinaldi et al., 2007).

The world‟s total numbers of goats and sheep were 861.9 and 1078.2 million respectively, i.e. there is about one goat to approximately 1.25 sheep. In Nigeria, the total number of goats and sheep were 53.8 and 33.9 million, respectively (FAOSTAT, 2008). This constitute 6.2% and 3.1% of the world total population of goats and sheep respectively (FAOSTAT, 2008).

The GI stongyle species of primary concern is Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-sucking helminth that causes anemia and reduced productivity leading to death in heavily infected animals (Burke et al., 2007).Haemonchuscontortus is a prolific egg producer and one female worm can produce up to 10,000 eggs per day, a probable reason why female worms tend to suck more blood than males (Roberts and Janovy, 2000). Thus a higher percentage of female than male worms is another contributory factor to blood loss and anaemia (Fetterer and Rhoads, 1996). About 400 worms can suck up to 6 ml of blood per day (Smyth, 1976) and at peak infection such populations may remove up to one fifth of the circulating erythrocytes volume per day.....


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