THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOL EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA (LAM) AERIAL PARTS ON FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SELECTED VARIETIES OF SORGHUM BICOLOR L.


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TABLES OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Statement of the Research Problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Aim
1.4       Objectives
1.5       Hypothesis

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Importance and Production Level of Sorghum
2.2       Pathogenic Fungi
2.3       Seed-borne Fungi of Sorghum
2.3.1    Head smut
2.3.2    Brown spot
2.3.3    Southern Sorghum rust
2.4       Fungi Contaminating Food and Feed Stuff
2.5       Factors Influencing Fungi Development and Mycotoxin Production
2.5.1    Moisture
2.5.2    Water activity
2.5.3    Temperature effects
2.5.4    Substrate material
2.5.5    The presence of other species
2.6       Fungi Metabolite
2.7       Use of Plant Botanical as Fungicides
2.8       Moringa oleifera (Lam)
2.9       Mycotoxins in Sorghum

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Study Area
3.2       Source of Material
3.3       Preparation of Media
3.4       Dispensing of Media
3.5       Isolation of Fungi from Sorghum Grains
3.6       Identification of Fungi
3.7       Preparation of Extract of Moringa oleifera
3.7.1    Methanol extract
3.7.2    Aqueous extract
3.8       Effect of Different Concentrations of Methanol and Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera on the Growth of Fungi Species
3.9       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS
4.1       Isolation of Fungi from Grains of Sorghum bicolor Varieties
4.2       Fungi Isolated from Sorghum bicolor Grains
4.3       Systematic Description of Fungi Isolates from Sorghum Grains
4.3.1    Aspergillusflavus Link
4.3.2    Aspergillusniger Van Tieghem
4.3.3    FusariumoxysporumSchlecht
4.3.4    PhomaherbarumSacc
4.3.5  Rhizopusstolonifer (Ehrenb) Lind
4.4       Percentage Occurrence of Fungi Isolates from Sorghum Grains
4.5       Effect of Different Concentrations of Seed Aqueous Extract of Moringaoleifera on Percentage Mycelial Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains
4.6       Effect of Different Concentrations of Stem bark Aqueous Extract of Moringaoleifera on Percentage Mycelial Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains
4.7       Effect of Different Concentrations of Leaves Aqueous Extract of Moringaoleifera on Percentage Mycelial Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains
4.8       Effect of Different Concentrations of Seeds Methanol Extract of Moringaoleifera on Percentage Mycelial Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from SorghumGrain
4.9       Effect of Different Concentrations of Stem bark Methanol Extract of Moringaoleifera on Percentage Mycelial Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains
4.10     Effect of different concentrations of leaves methanol extract of Moringa oleiferaon Percentage Mycelial Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains
4.11     Efficacy of Aqueous Extracts of Different Plant Partsof Moringa oleifera on Percentage Mycelial Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains
4.12     Efficacy of Methanol Extracts of Different PlantParts of Moringa oleifera on Percentage Mycelial GrowthInhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains
4.13     Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Moringa oleifera on Percentage Mycelia Growth Inhibition of Isolated Fungi from Sorghum Grains

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1       Conclusion
6.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDICES



ABSTRACT

This study was conducted in finding out the invitro effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam) aerial parts on fungi isolated from some selected varieties of Sorghum bicolor L. Different varieties of Sorghum bicolor L. namely Samsorg 17, Samsorg 40, Samsorg 42, Samsorg 43 were obtained from Plant Science Department IAR, and a local land race Kaura was collected from Sabon Gari Market in Zaria. Five different fungi namely AspergillusflavusLink,Aspergillus niger

VanTieghem,Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.)Lind and Phoma herbarum Sacc were isolated from the grains. These were isolated on both potato dextrose agar(PDA) and Saboraud‟s dextrose agar(SDA) using the agar plate method. The predominance of Aspergillusspp. indicate that they possibly act as pioneer organisms in the seed borne infection while the presence of other isolates show that there is possible succession of fungi in the seed borne infection. On invitro culture of these organisms in PDA amended with varying concentrations of MoringaoleiferaLam extracts (Aqueous and Methanol) from the leaves, seeds and stem bark using the radial growth method, extract from the leaves were found to be more effective than the other two in the mycelia growth inhibition of the isolated fungi. Growth of these fungi inhibits more in the presence of higher concentrations as compared to lower concentrations of extract. However the cumulative effects of these extracts were found to vary with concentration, plant parts, pathogen as well as type of solvent used for the extraction.



CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                 INTRODUCTION

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is the fifth most important world cereal and an important native cereal in Africa (FAO, 1995 and ICRISAT, 1996; Murty and Renard, 2001). Total world production of sorghum in the year 2002 was estimated at about 54 million tons (FAO, 2004) and annual production of about 70 million metric tons of grains from 50 million hectares of land (National Academic of Science, 1996). Sorghum is also the dietary staple of more than 500 million people in more than 30 countries (National Academic of Science, 1996).

In Nigeria, sorghum is an important staple cereal grown in more than twenty states of the federation including Akwa Ibom and Enugu states (Wudiri and Fatoba, 1992). It accounts for about 50% of the total cereal crops grown in Nigeria.According to Alegbejo (2002), Sorghumis the second most important cereal in Nigeria. The estimated annual production is about 9 million tons produced on about 6 million hectares. Average grain yield of subsistent farmers in the West African sub-region are generally between 500 to 800 kg/ ha (Sharma et al., 1992).

Sorghum is a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals to the poorest people of the semi – arid tropics. The crop is dried, stored, and later used to prepare stiff porridge, thin porridge or fried dumpling.It is also used in brewing local beer (NAS, 1996). The leaves provide fodder for farm animals and the stalk are used in fencing, roofing, weaving baskets and mats and also as fuel wood (Obilana, 1995). Sorghum.....


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