STUDIES ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DOGS IN RELATION TO RABIES CONTROL IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
1.3 Justification
1.4 Theoretical Framework
1.5 Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.5.1 Aim
1.5.2 Objectives
1.6 Research Questions

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Dog Population in Urban and Rural Areas
2.1.1 Dog abundance
2.1.2 Dog habitats
2.1.3 Dog movements
2.1.4 Feeding habits
2.1.5 Activity patterns
2.1.6 Social organization of dog populations
2.1.7 Dog functions in human societies
2.1.8 Dog diseases and public health
2.2       Dog Population Structure
2.2.1 Sex ratios
2.2.2 Age ratios and age determination
2.2.3 Natality and rearing success
2.2.4 Mortality and survival
2.3 Stray Dog Population
2.4 Techniques Applied to the Study of Dog Population
2.4.1 Questionnaire surveys
2.4.2 Total or direct counts
2.4.3 Estimates from rate of capture
2.4.4 Estimates from recaptures
2.5 Population Estimates
2.6 The Dog Population Situation in Nigeria
2.6.1 The use of geographic information system for dog enumeration

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Study Area
3.2 Study Design
3.3 Sampling Procedure and Data Collection
3.3.1 House-to-house questionnaire survey
3.3.2 Mapping of enumeration units using geographic information system
3.3.3 Sample Size
3.3.4 Street Counts
3.4 Information on Vaccination of Dogs and Cases of Dog Bites in Humans

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1.      Dog Population Study
4.1.1. Household information on dog population obtained from 1,000 households in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State
4.1.2. Individual dog information obtained from 1,000 households in Kaduna metropolis, KadunaState
4.2.      Structure of Dogs and Human Population in the Compound Count in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State
4.3.      Association between Rabies Vaccination Status of Dogs and Individual DogInformation in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State
4.4. Multivariable Logistic Regression Analysis of Vaccination Status with DogInformation in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State
4.5 Information on Vaccination of Dogs
4.6Information on Cases of Dog Bites in Humans

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Conclusion
6.2Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDICES



ABSTRACT

Dogs perform a range of cultural, social and economic functions in the society. Dogs are kept as pets and companions, for hunting, as guards or for commercial purposes. Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog population has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was carried out to determine the spatial distribution of dog population, vaccination status of dogs, and rabies related dog bites in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. Dog population census was carried out within Kaduna metropolis in May-July 2014 using direct street count and questionnaire survey aided by aerial photographic coverage of the city to define enumeration areas, with the use of Geographic Information System to ascertain the spatial spread of dog population. The city was classified into four zones, namely Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Chikun and Igabi Local Government Areas. One thousand questionnaires were directly administered at household and compound levels to capture data on socio-economic profile of dog owners, reasons for/not keeping dogs and types of management system practiced, and dog count. Information on rabies vaccination status was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture Zonal Veterinary Clinic Magajin Gari, Kaduna, Kaduna State from 2004-2010, the existing records of reported cases of dog bite in humans was also obtained for a period of ten years (2004-2014). The results of questionnaire survey revealed a total of 324 dogs. There were 199 (61.4%) male and 125 (38.6%) female dogs in the population. Young dogs (<6months 67="" adult="" dogs="" old="" were="" while="">6months old) were 257 (79.3%). The finding of this study showed a dog to human ratio of 1:28.9. Dog distribution ranged from172 (53.1%) in Chikun L.G.A, to 3 (0.9%) in Igabi L.G.A. There was no significant difference (แตก2 = 2.1, P > 0.05) in the distribution of sexes of dogs. Most dogs (94.4%) are kept as guard dogs in their owner‟s premises. The majority of respondents who do not own dog (29.6%) said it was due to religious reasons. The anti-rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the houses surveyed was estimated at (35.5%). The study revealed low vaccination coverage in native breed of dogs (50.98%), in females (36.6%) and in dogs greater than 12 months of age (29.0%), therefore vaccination against rabies should be instituted regardless of sex, breed and age of dogs so as to attain the 70% vaccination coverage as prescribed by the World Health Organization. Out of 86 dogs reported to be involved in dog bite cases, 76 (88.4%) offending dogs were owned dogs and 10 (11.6%) were found to be stray dogs. Analyses of vaccination status of those dogs involved in dog bite revealed that 55.8% of dogs had been vaccinated, while 29.1% of dogs had no current anti-rabies vaccination. The number of dogs with unknown vaccination status were 15.1%. The implications of these findings are very critical in the control of rabies and other dog-borne diseases. Therefore as part of an effective rabies control programme, there should be regularvaccination campaign programmes, and mobilization of residents for more responsible dog ownership in Kaduna metropolis.





CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background of the Study

Dogs were domesticated from wolves as recently as 15,000 years ago (Morey, 2006), or perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago based on recent genetic fossil and DNA evidence (Savolainen et al., 2002; Lindbald-Toh, 2005). Evidence suggests that dogs were first domesticated in East Asia, possibly China, and the first people to enter North America took dogs with them (Savolainen et al., 2002).


The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is generally considered as the first domesticated mammal and has co-existed with man as a working partner and house pet in all eras and culture since the days of the cave dwellers (Brickner, 2002).Dogs perform a range of cultural, social and economic functions in society. Dogs are kept as pets and companions, for hunting, as guards or for commercial purposes. Some studies also suggest that keeping pets is associated with a higher level of self- esteem in children (Paul and Serpell, 1996; Knobel et al., 2008).




A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronymGIS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of Geoinformatics. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and computer science technology (Maliene et al., 2011).There are........

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