SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF THE PREVALENCE OF WATERBORNE DISEASES IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Content
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Research Questions
1.4       Aim and Objectives
1.5       Null Hypotheses
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Justification of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPTUAL/THEORETICAL FRAME WORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Conceptual Framework
2.2.1    The Concept of Disease
2.3       Theoretical Framework
2.3.1    The Health Belief Model (HBM)
2.3.2    The Contrastive Model
2.3.3  The Traditional Theory of Disease Causation
2.3.4  The Humoral Theory of Disease Causation
2.3.5 The Contagion Theory of Disease Causation
2.3.6 The Germs Theory of Disease Causation
2.4       Literature Review
2.4.1    Environmental Determinants of Waterborne Diseases
2.4.2    Classification of Waterborne Diseases
2.4.3   Perception of People on the Causes of Diseases
2.4.4    Social Determinants in Health Discussion
2.4.5    Spatio – Temporal Pattern of Waterborne Diseases in Nigeria
2.4.6    Synergy between Potable Water, Sanitation and Human Development
2.4.7    Effects of Waterborne Diseases
2.4.8    Waterborne Diseases Eradication Initiatives
2.4.9    Challenges to Eradicating Waterborne Diseases
2.4.10 Water and Socio-Economic Development
2.4.11  Disease and Health Care System
2.4.12  Overcoming Disease Challenges: The Way Out
2.4.13  The phenomena of Major Waterborne Diseases

CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY
3.1       Study Area
3.1.1    Location
3.1.2    Relief and Drainage
3.1.3    Climate
3.1.4    Vegetation
3.1.5    Soil
3.1.6    Peoples of Kwara State
3.1.7    Socio-Economic Activities
3.1.8    Industries
3.1.9    Water Infrastructure
3.2.0    Health Care Delivery System
3.2       Methodology
3.2.1    Reconnaissance
3.2.2    Types of Data
3.2.3    Sources of Data
3.2.3.1 Primary Sources of Data
3.2.3.2 Secondary Sources
3.2.4    Sampling Design and Sampling Technique
3.4       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
4.1.1    Sex
4.1.2    Age
4.1.3a  Marital Status
4.1.3b  Distribution of Respondents by Marital Union
4.1.4    Educational Attainment
4.1.5    Occupation
4.1.6    Children Ever born
4.1.7    Income
4.2       Knowledge of Respondents on Waterborne Diseases
4.2.1    Factors Promoting Waterborne Diseases
4.2.2    Sources of Water in Study Area
4.3       Surmounting Challenges of Waterborne Diseases
4.4       Effects of waterborne Diseases in Kwara state
4.5       Socio-Demographic Variable and Prevalence of Waterborne Diseases in Kwara  State
4.6Seasonality of Waterborne Disease in Kwara State

CHAPTER FIVE: SPATIO-TEMPORAL TREND IN WATERBORNE DISEASES IN KWARA STATE
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Trend in Typhoid Disease (2007-2012)
5.3       Trend in Diarrhea Disease (2007-2012)
5.4       Trend in  Schistosomiasis Disease (2007-2012)
5.5       Trend in Onchocerciasis Disease (2007-2012)
5.6       Trend in Trypanosomiasis Disease (2007-2012)
5.7       Trend in Cholera Disease (2007-2012)
5.8       Hypotheses Testing
5.8.1 Hypothesis 1
5.8.2 Hypothesis 11
5.8.3 Hypothesis 111
5.9 Distribution of Out-Patients of Waterborne Disease in Kwara State (2005-2010)

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1       Introduction
6.2       Summary
6.3       Conclusion
6.4       Recommendations
6.5       Implications of this Study
References




Abstract

Waterborne diseases have been a major health issue globally because of the burden it places on man. As a result of this, the present study therefore aimed at analysing the spatio-temporal pattern of waterborne diseases, using Kwara State as a case study. Primary and secondary data were obtained from questionnaire survey, Focus Group Discussions, interviews and published and unpublished works. Multi-stage sampling method was adopted in this study. Four stage sampling method was adopted in the selection of sample size. National Population Commission (1991) estimated that the mean household for each settlement in Kwara State (as at 1991 population census) was 4.7 for the selected settlements. In all, a total of 353 households were sampled across the three senatorial districts. Kwara South Senatorial district has the highest number of households of 127, while Kwara North and Central Senatorial districts have 118 and 108 respectively. Data from FGDs, in-depth interviews, questionnaire and other sources were subjected to test the stated hypotheses using t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Correlation Analysis. Thus, t-test was used to establish the relationship in the mean sex perception of waterborne diseases in the study area. With tcal =

3.6732 > t0.05, ¥ = 1.96 and 0.0341 < 0.05,there was a significant difference in the mean sex perception of waterborne diseases examined in the study area. Similarly, ANOVA was used

to establish the relationship in the mean perception of waterborne diseases among other socio-demographic variables such as age, income and educational qualification in the study area. The result showed that, there is a significant relationship between the examined waterborne diseases and socio-demographic variables in the study area, as fcal = 4.765 >

f0.05,(3,559) = 2.62 and 0.0356 < 0.05. Descriptive Statistics was equally used to determine the Perception on the Prevalence of the six waterborne diseases across the three senatorial

districts of the study area. The result showed that there is no difference in the prevalence and occurrence of waterborne diseases in Kwara state. Lastly, Correlation Analysis was also used to establish the relationship in the prevalence and occurrence of waterborne diseases in the senatorial districts of the study area. The result showed that in Kwara North, there is prevalence of waterborne diseases, than in Kwara South and Central. This trend may be associated to the level of self-help in Kwara South and availability of water infrastructure at Kwara Central, being the seat of government. The study concluded that, available potable water in the study is not adequate, and the few that are available are dysfunctional as the value of p-value of .008 < 0.05 level of significance at a correlation level of 0.530 at 22 df.. This may be closely related to the challenges of retardiness of socio-economic sector, which has led to inaccessibility to safe water . In the light of the above, the study recommended that prioritization of potable water, early tracking of waterborne diseases, efficient socio-economic programmes and relevant environmental education are necessary are imperative in curtailing the menace of waterborne diseases not only in the study area, but Nigeria as a whole.




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION.

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.


Waterborne diseases are a major health issue, because of the burden they place on man. Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water (Wikipedia, free Online). According to this school of thought, waterborne diseases may result from bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food or the consumption of food thus affected. Thus waterborne diseases can be described as all illnesses that results from having contact with or drinking contaminated water. According to World Health Organization-WHO (2012a), 88.0% of all infectious diseases worldwide and 90.0% of all infectious diseases in developing countries are water-related.

Studies have shown that the prevalence of water borne diseases is associated with poor, unhealthy sanitary conditions and polluted environment (UNICEF, 2003; Parbio and Violeta, 2008). The United Nations International Children‘s Education Fund UNICEF-(2012) reported that, globally as at 2010 over 780million people did not have access to improved water, with 37% of them living in Sub-Saharan Africa. The same report submitted that in the same period, 2.5billion people lack access to adequate sanitation. In the same vein, Vidal (2012a) submitted further that, over 300 million Africans lacked adequate sanitary waste disposal system and clean water for drinking, cooking and washing. Indeed Jabeen, Mahmood, and Tariq (2011) opined that the second most important risk factor for poor health is lack of clean water and poor sanitation and it has major health impacts. Hunter, MacDonald and Carter (2010) also agreed that a safe, reliable, affordable, and easily accessible water supply is essential for good health....

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