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Chapter One
1.1 Back ground of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research questions
1.4. Objective of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Delimitation of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of key terms

Chapter Two
Review of Related Literature
2.1       The Symbolic Interactionist Theory
2.2       A bridge between Social Constructivism and Cognitive Psychology
2.3       Social Constructivist Theory of learning Mathematics
2.4       Social interaction
2.5       Nature of class room interaction
2.5.1  Interaction requires participants
2.5.2    Interaction is a dynamic and changeable process
2.5.3    Interaction has a rule
2.5.4    Interaction is affected by various factors
2.5.5    Interaction involves behavior
2.6       Setting of class room interaction
2.6.1    Temporal Setting
2.6.2 Physical Setting
2.6.3    The Institutional Setting
2.6.4    The Educational Setting
2.7       Interaction in Mathematics
            2.7.1 Teaching Mathematics
            2.7.2 Teaching Mathematics in class room
            2.7.3 Cooperative Learning in Mathematics
2.8       Flanders Interaction Analysis System
            Flanders Interaction Analysis Category System
2.9       Some Research Findings

Chapter Three
3.1 Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       The Context of my study
3.3.1 Selection of the research site
3.3.2 Setting of the Research site
  Physical & Temporal Setting
  The Educational Setting
  Choice of Curricula
  Form of Assessment
  Provision of appropriate text &other resources
  Other resources
  Proper qualifications for staff recruits
3.4       Data gathering techniques
3.4.1    Observation
3.4.2    Interview
3.4.3 Focus group discussion
3.5 Sampling
  Ethical Consideration
  Dependability & Conformability
3.6       Data Collection
3.7       Flanders System of Interaction Analysis
3.8       Procedures Followed when using FIAT
3.8.1 Encoding Process
3.8.2    Decoding process

Chapter Four
Presentation & Interpretation of Data
4.1       Data Analysis
4.2       Comparison of Teaching Behavior of Teachers Based on each categories
4.3       Mathematics Teachers Teaching behavioral Ratios
4.3.1 Teacher Talk(TT),Pupil Talk(PT),Silence & Confusion(SC)
4.3.2    The Indirect/Direct(I/D) Ratio
4.3.3    Teacher questioning Ratio(TQR)
4.3.4 Teacher Response Ratio(TRR)
4.3.5 Pupil Initiation Ratio(PIR)
4.3.6 Content Cross Ratio(CCR) & Steady State Ratio(SSR)
Teacher response(Interview)
Interview & FGD of students

Chapter Five
Summary, Conclusion,& Recommendation
5.1 Summary
5.2       Conclusion(s)
5.3       Recommendations


Social interaction in Mathematics class room

The Objective of this study was to understand the nature of mathematics class room interaction. It also aimed to find out & examine factors that influence teacher-student and student-student interactions from Social Constructivism and Symbolic Interactionism perspectives. Qualitative case study was used to carry out this study. Purposeful sampling was used to select six Mathematics teachers teaching at this school with five students. Data were gathered using qualitative methods through personal observation, interviews,& focus group discussion. The 13 Modification of Flanders‟ Interaction Analysis Technique (FIAT)was used as instrument of data analysis. The result showed that teachers talk was greater than student talk. The greater proportion of teachers talk was devoted to lecturing. This is an indication of the prevalence of one way interaction, which is a typical of traditional classes. The high percentage of TRR is because of much time devoted to accepting feelings, accepting students‟ idea & praising. On the basis of these findings, awareness should be created to teachers', school directors and other educational personnel about the importance of class room interaction in mathematics. Besides, teacher education programs should be arranged so that they can help trainees/ teachers acquire appropriate knowledge, strategies and skills of class room interaction.



1.1        Back ground of the study

Education has great importance in the social and economical development of any country. Efforts are being made worldwide to improve the quality of education and make it more effective & efficient.

Regarding the role of education in the development of an individual & in wider sense for the society, the Ethiopian Education &Training Policy (ETP), for instance, has the following to stipulate:

Education enables man to identify harmful traditions & replace them by useful one; it helps man to improve, change as well as develop and conserve his environment for the purpose of an all rounded development by diffusing science and technology in to (TGE, 1994:1).

Education undoubtedly plays a great role in developing individuals‟ capacity in problem solving & environment adaptability knowledge, ability, skill and attitude (TGE, 1994:2). As a result, the individual is then able to participate in all-rounded development sectors.

In line with this, Amare (2005) stated that education in context of student development means extending, the freedom of the students in learning. He added learning is something that comes from within the student & cannot be imposed unless learning takes place in the content of enjoyment (Amare, 2005:1 as cited in Andualem, 2006). Hence, freedom in learning is very important. According to Amare (2005), freedom is a means and end of education. He further argues that the human element is the most important entity in education.

A type of human development effort that ignores the human agency as autonomous being to decide its fate defeats its purpose. Education, therefore should aim at expanding freedom through freedom. Expansion of freedom is viewed both as a primary end and as principal means of development (Amare,2005:1)......

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