QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND MICROBIAL STATUS OF BEEF SMOKED WITH DIFFERENT PLANT MATERIALS AND SUYA PRODUCED FROM ROUND MUSCLES


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Tables of contents
List of tables

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Justification of the study
1.2       Objectives of the study
1.3       hypothesis

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Domestication of animal for meat
2.2       Growth and development of meat animals
2.2.1    Genetics
2.2.2    Environmental factors
2.2.3    Nutrition
2.2.4    Human Interventions
2.3       Meat Composition
2.4       Biochemical Changes: from Muscle to meat
2.5       Acidity in Meat
2.6       Meat quality parameters
2.6.1    Tenderness
2.6.2    Meat Colour
2.6.3    Cooked meat
2.6.4    Effect of meat pH
2.7       Meat Smoking
2.7.1    Composition of Smoke
2.7.2    Plant Materials Used for Smoking
2.7.3    Smoke House
2.7.4    Effect of Smoking on Meat
2.7.5    Health Risk of Smoked meat
2.8       Suya
2.8.1    Characterization of connective Tissue of Bovine Skeletal Muscle
2.8.2    Cuts of Beef
2.9       Meat Spoilage
2.9.2    Effect of Temperature on meat spoilage
2.9.3    Effect of water Activity on meat spoilage
2.9.4    Effect of Gas Tension on meat spoilage

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Materials and Methods
3.1       Study Location
3.2       Sample collection and preparation for Smoked Beef
3.3       Smoking of meat
3.3.1    Construction of smoking ovens
3.3.2    Meat distribution in smoke ovens
3.3.3    Smoke cooking procedure
3.4       Sample preparation for Suya
3.4.1    Ingredient reparations
3.4.2    Preparation of Suya
3.4.3    Roasting Process
3.5       Sensory Evaluation
3.6       Physical Composition of smoked beef and Suya samples
3.6.1    Determination of Percentage Cooking Loss
3.6.2    Determination of Percentage Moisture content
3.6.3    Determination of Percentage Thermal Shortening
3.6.4    Determination of Water Holding Capacity
3.6.5    pH Determination of smoked beef and suya
3.7       Proximate Composition of smoked beef and suya
3.8       Microbial Analysis
3.8.1    Materials
3.8.2    Preparation of Media for Fungi Isolation
3.8.3    Isolation of Fungi
3.8.4    Characterization of fungal Isolates
3.8.5    Bacterial counts
3.8.6    Bacterial isolation by selective plating
3.8.7    Colony Identification
3.8.8    Biochemical Testing
3.9       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER 4
4.0       RESULTS
4.1 .1   Proximate Composition of smoked beef
4.1.2    Proximate Composition of Suya
4.2.1    Organoleptic assessment of beef smoked using different plant materials
4.2.2    Organoleptic assessment of suya samples
4.3       Physical Parameters of samples
4.3.1    Physical Parameters of Smoked Beef
4.3.2    Physical parameters of suya
4.4       Total Viable Counts, Coli-form Counts
4.4.1    Total Viable Count, Coli-form counts of Smoked Beef
4.4.2    Total viable counts/ Total Aerobic and coli-form count of suya
4.5       Biochemical Test Results
4.5.1    Biochemical Test of Salmonella in Smoked beef samples
4.5.2    Biochemical Test Results for Salmonella on Suya Samples
4.5.3    Biochemical Test Results for E. coli on Smoked Beef
4.5.4    Biochemical Test Results for E. Coli on Suya Samples
4.6       Xerophilic Fungi Isolated
4.6.1    Moulds associated with Smoked beef                                   
4.6.2    Moulds associated with Suya Samples

Chapter 5
5.0       Discussion
5.1       Proximate and Mineral Composition of Smoked Beef
5.2       Proximate and composition of Suya from various round muscles
5.3       Mean sensory score for organoleptic parameters of smoked beef
5.4       Mean sensory score for organoleptic parameters of suya
5.5       Physical parameters for smoked beef
5.6       Physical Changes in Suya samples
5.7       Total Viable Counts, Coli-form counts of smoked beef
5.8       Total Viable counts, coli-form counts of suya
5.9       Biochemical test for staphylococcus, salmonella and E. coli
5.10     Moulds associated with smoked beef samples

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       Conclusions and Recommendation
6.1       Conclusion
6.2       Recommendation
REFERENCES



ABSTRACT

Two experiments were conducted. The first evaluated beef smoked using different plant materials (Acacia raddiana, Eucalyptus camaldutensis, Azadirachta indica and Cocos nucifera) as source of smoke. The effect of the plant materials on the organoleptic, microbial and physicochemical properties of smoked beef was evaluated. In the second study, Suya was produced from various round muscles (Rectus femoris, Semi-tendinosus, Biceps-femoris, Semi membranosus and Vastus lateralis) and evaluated for organoleptic, microbial and physicochemical properties. Both studies were carried out in a completely randomized design. The result showed that there was no significant (P>0.05) difference among sources of fuel wood tested on the overall acceptability of smoked meat. However, organoleptic scores on a five point hedonic scale were lowest (2.50) for beef smoked with C. nucifera and highest (3.30) for beef smoked with A. raddiana (Standard check). The pH values were within the accepted limit (5.5-6.5). Percentage thermal shortening were not significantly (P>0.05) different. Percentage Water holding capacity was highest (13.6) in beef smoked with C. nucifera. Total viable counts/ Aerobic plate count, coli-form counts were all within satisfactory limits (i.e. <½ million/g). In the second study, the fat content was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the muscle types. The score for overall acceptability indicated that the consumers preferred Biceps femoris which was significantly (P< 0.05) different from other round muscles. Water holding capacity was observed to have influence on other qualities such as the flavour, juiciness and tenderness. Product yield was lowest (70.20 %) in Vastus lateralis, indicating a good yield from all muscles. Microbial load of all suya samples fell within satisfactory limit with reference to the standard microbial load specification (i.e. <½ million/g). It was concluded that Eucalyptus camaldutensis (Turare), Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Cocos nucifera (coconut shell) are good sources of fuel wood and can be used as an alternative to Acacia raddiana for smoking beef. Furthermore, smoke had an antimicrobial and antioxidant effects as the microbial load were all within satisfactory limit. From the results of the second study, it was concluded that the prime cuts, apart from resulting in Suya with high prices are not necessarily better than Suya from less choice parts of the carcass (Semi-membranous, Semi-tendinosus, Biceps femoris, Rectus femoris and Vastus lateralis) in terms of product yield and eating qualities.




CHAPTER ONE


1.0              INTRODUCTION

Meat has been defined as the flesh of animals which is suitable as food. Meat makes a valuable contribution to diets because of its high biological value and an excellent source of amino acids, vitamins and minerals (CAST, 1997). A daily intake of 100 g of meat can supply up to 50% of the recommended daily allowance for Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and 100% of vitamin A (Biesalski and Nohr, 2009).

In Nigeria there is a preferential consumption of different types of meat by communities due to a combination of factors bordering on religious belief, culture, food habits, sex of animal, age at slaughter, socio-economic factors and individual variation (Ajiboye et al., 2011).

Meat being nutritious with high moisture content and nearly neutral pH is a good culture medium for many micro-organisms (bacteria, yeasts and moulds) and as such, classified among perishable foods whose contamination with spoilage organisms are almost unavoidable (Ikeme, 1990). This makes meat preservation more difficult than other types of food as it may result in oxidative rancidity, discolouration, off flavour, sliminess etc. The kind and amount of spoilage organisms in meat depends upon the availability of nutrients, presence of oxygen, temperature, pH at storage and generation interval of the spoilage microorganism under given environment etc. (Forrest et al., 2001). It is necessary to minimize deterioration in order to prolong the time during which acceptable levels of quality are maintained. This depends upon the processing and preservative method used and the inherent properties of the meat in question (Forrest et al., 2001).

Different methods of meat preservation have been used through out history. These include, the use of high temperature (e.g. roasting), Low temperature (e.g. chilling, freezing and.....

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