PREVALENCE OF RABIES IN SLAUGTHERED DOGS AND KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF RESIDENTS OF ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCIL OF THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA TOWARDS RABIES


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS
SUMMARY

CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background Information
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       General and Specific Objectives
1.5.1    General objective
1.5.2    Specific objectives

CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Prevalence of Rabies
2.2       Epidemiology of Canine Rabies
2.2.1    The rabies virus
2.2.2    The structure of rabies
2.3       Risk Factors for Rabies
2.4       Transmission of Rabies
2.5       Distribution of Rabies
2.6       Pathogenesis of Rabies
2.7       Immunity to Rabies
2.8       Diagnosis of Rabies
2.9       Treatment for Rabies
2.10     Prevention of Rabies
2.11     Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Rabies

CHAPTER THREE – METHODOLOGY
3.1       Study Area
3.2       Study Design
3.3       Study Population
3.3.1    Inclusion criteria
3.3.2    Exclusion criteria
3.4       Sample Size Determination
3.5       Sampling Technique
3.6       Study Instruments
3.7       Data Collection Methods
3.8       Data Management
3.8.1    Measurement of variables
3.8.2    Statistical analyses
3.9       Ethical Clearance
3.10     Limitations

CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS
4.1       Socio-demographic Characteristics
4.2       Knowledge of rabies among respondents
4.2.1    Distribution of knowledge among respondents
4.3       Attitude and Health Seeking Behaviour towards Rabies among Respondents
4.3.1    Distribution of attitude and health seeking behaviour of respondents towards rabies
4.4       Practice of Responsible Dog Ownership among Respondents
4.4.1    Distribution of respondents according to practices and responsible dog ownership behaviour
4.5       Characteristics of Respondents and Ownership of Dogs
4.5.1    Knowledge of rabies and ownership of dog
4.5.2    Attitude and health seeking behaviour by dog ownership
4.6       Determination of KAP of Rabies
4.6.1    Association between demographic characteristics and knowledge
4.6.2    Association between demographic characteristics and attitude
4.6.3    Association between demographic characteristics and practise
4.6.4    Association between knowledge and attitude
4.7       Detection of Rabies Antigen
4.7.1    Zoographic characteristics of slaughtered dogs
4.7.2    Rabies antigen in slaughtered dogs by F.A.T.
4.7.3    Distribution by sex

CHAPTER FIVE - DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX - CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1       Conclusions
6.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES



SUMMARY

Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus. It is endemic in Nigeria and dog is the main reservoir of this disease of public health significance. A cross sectional study was carried out in Abuja Municipal Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory to assess the prevalence and knowledge of rabies in this area. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of rabies in slaughtered dogs, determine the knowledge of rabies, determine attitude and health seeking behavior, determine practices and good dog ownership behavior and compare these indices between dog and non dog owners among residents. Two hundred and twenty four structured questionnaires were administered to residents of Gwarinpa, Life Camp and Asokoro of the Federal Capital Territory by random and systemic sampling techniques. In addition, 150 dog brain samples were collected from apparently healthy dogs and checked for the presence of rabies antigen using fluorescent antibody test. Approximately 55% of respondents were dog owners. All (100%) were aware of the mode of transmission of rabies, the dog as the reservoir, the fatal nature of rabies and prevention by vaccination. Some (54%) believed that rabies could be cured after symptoms appeared. About 87% knew where to get vaccination for dogs, 87% would seek medical treatment from the hospital when bitten by a dog but only 36.7% knew that washing wound with soap and water was a good first aid practice in a case of dog bite. Among dog owners, 65% would restrict their dogs in kennels with minimal movement within the compound and 94% had vaccinated their dog against rabies and other preventable diseases. Dog owners (52%) were more annoyed by the presence of a stray dog than non dog owners. Out of the 150 samples analyzed for rabies antigen, 12% was positive. Positivity to rabies antigen was neither associated with sex nor location of slaughtered dogs. The level of awareness of rabies and responsible dog ownership were high. Dog owners were more tuned to reporting a case of dog bite than non-dog owners. Production of informative materials on rabies to sustain the awareness should be carried out. The role that can be played by slaughtered dogs in spread of rabies should be investigated and residence should be enlightened on the role of stray dogs in spreading rabies.





CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background Information

Throughout human history, few illnesses have provoked as much anxiety as has rabies. Known as a distinct entity since at least 500 Before Christ (B.C), rabies has been the subject of myths and legends across time and cultures and has continued to inspire dread today. Amidst this concern is a great deal of misinformation about the disease.1

Rabies is a widely distributed zoonotic disease of major public health importance2 that has been well known since ancient ages and has been known for more than 4300 years.3,4 Rabies remains a zoonotic viral disease that affects human, domestic and wild animals5 but the importance of wild animals in its spread has not been determined.6 It is one of the most feared of all diseases because its terrifying symptoms almost invariably end with death. It remains incurable and survivors are extremely rare.2 There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies, and only three known cases of survival in which the patient received no rabies specific treatment either before or after illness onset.7

More than 3 billion people globally are living in countries/territories where dog rabies still exists and are potentially exposed to the disease. It is estimated that at least 55,000 human rabies deaths occur yearly in Africa and Asia following contact with rabid dogs. In many countries of those continents, few activities are underway to prevent rabies occurrence in humans and to control rabies in dogs, even when the number of human deaths is high.8

Dog licensing, killing of stray dogs, muzzling, and other measures contributed to the elimination of rabies from the United Kingdom in the early 20th century. More recently, large-scale.....


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