PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS AND KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF WORKERS IN TWO ABUJA ABATTOIRS, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF ACRONYMS
SUMMARY

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.2 Research Problem
1.3 Justification
1.4 Research Question
1.5 General and Specific Objectives
1.5.1 General Objectives
1.5.2 Specific Objectives
SCOPE OF STUDY

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.      Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis
2.1.1 Mycobacterium
2.1.2 Genome Structure
2.2 Application to Biotechnology
2.3 Transmission and Susceptibility
2.4. Distribution
2.5 Pathogenesis
2.6 Pathology
2.7 Diagnosis
2.7 Identification of the Agent
            2.7.1 Microscopic examination
            2.7.2 Culture
2.8       Nucleic Acid Recognition Methods
            2.8. 1 Delayed hypersensitivity test
2.9       Blood-Based Laboratory Tests
b)         Lymphocyte proliferation assay
c)         Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
2.10     Treatment
2.11 Prevention and Control
2.12 Public Health Significance
2.13 Risk Factors in Humans
2.14 Individual at Risk

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1       Area of Study
            Map of Nigeria highlighting
3.2       Study Design
3.3       Study Population
3.3.1 Inclusion criteria
3.3.2 Exclusion criteria
3.4       Sample Size Determination
3.5       Sampling Technique
3.8       Data Management and Analysis
3.9       Ethical Considerations
3.10 Limitations

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.2 Prevalence of Mycobaterium bovis in Sera of Cattle at Slaughter
4.3 Visual Identification of Lesion in Tissues of Cattle Slaughtered
4.4 Microbacterial detection of Mycobacterium bovis in suspected tuberculous tissues
4.5 Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in male and female cattle slaughtered
4.6 Body condition data of sero-positive cattle
4.7 Analysis of Questionnaire
4.8 Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factor For Bovine Tuberculosis in Butchers And Meat Handlers
4.9 Multivariate analysis

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendations
REFERENCES
WORK PLAN



SUMMARY


Mycobacterium bovis is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable and pasteurization is rarely practiced.

In Nigeria, the disease is sporadic. The current status on the actual prevalence rate of bovine tuberculosis at a national level is unknown but from the limited survey research which has been reported over 30 years, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis due to M. bovis ranges from 2.5% in 1976 to 14% in 2007. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle and assess the knowledge attitude and preventive practices of butchers and meat handlers.

A cross-sectional study was conducted at two abattoirs in Abuja, Nigeria from March 2013 - April 2013. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on social demographics, medical information, work related exposure factors and preventive practices. The butchers and meat handler were selected by simple random sampling. Cattle slaughtered at the abattoirs were also screened for bovine tuberculosis using lateral flow technique and Ziehl Neelsen test. Bivariate and multivariate data analyses were done using Epi-info software.

Out of a total of 185 serum and 5 tissue samples screened at both abattoirs, 32 (17.3%) and all 5 were positive for the rapid test lateral flow technique and Acid Fast stain respectively. The only risk factor associated with bovine tuberculosis infection in these cattle was the sex (female) (p = 0.01). Of the 156 butchers and meat handlers on whom the questionnaire was administered, 115 (73.8%) were men and 41 (27.2%) were women. The following were significant by the level of knowledge; the length of time worked at the abattoir (Odds Ratio OR) = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6-7.4, knowledge of mode of transmission (OR =2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.1), Potential risk associated with your job (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.0), eating or drinking at place of work (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.2-1.4), Additionally, the following factor were significantly associated with poor knowledge of BTB ; drinking fresh milk ( OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2- 0.8), and not boiling their milk before drinking ( OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2- 0.9), Seen a bovine tuberculosis lesion in your slaughtered (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.2-0.5), What‘s done to lesion (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0-4.8) and Do you consume meat with these lesions (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7). Multvariate analysis showed that length of work (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.45, 95% CI= 1.3-9.0), and wether seen a bovine tuberculosis lesion on your slaughtered cattle (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI= 0.1-0.7) were significant by the level of knowledge.


The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis is under reported based on abattoir surveillance of tuberculous tissue only. Butchers and meat handlers have a an increase risk of exposure due to consumption of meat with lesion of tuberculosis and what is done when they come across lesion of bovine tuberculosis due to the inadequate knowledge of the disease and its mode of transmission. Butchers and meat handlers should be encouraged to seek for medical attention early when a cough persists.




CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION


Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious and contagious Zoonotic disease of domestic, wild animals and humans (1). Human and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) are two forms of tuberculosis that cause significant disease in mammals (2). It is characterized by the formation of granulomas (tubercles) in tissues and organs more significantly in lungs, lymph nodes, intestine, liver and kidneys (3). Though primarily a bovine problem but infect animals causing tuberculosis in camels, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, dogs, cats, badgers, lions, elephants, deers, primates and man

(4).The disease is zoonotic and therefore of public health significance (5). Human tuberculosis is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but in regions where bovine tuberculosis is prevalent in animals, human tuberculosis cases due to Mycobacterium bovis may occur (6). Zoonotic bovine tuberculosis is present in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable (7). The disease is widespread and affecting livestock and human health in Africa (8). It is among the fastest killer disease in Nigeria today (9) and developing countries as a whole (10). In Africa, the occurrence of tuberculosis due to

Mycobacterium bovis in human is difficult to determine accurately because of technical problems in isolating the microorganism (11). Currently bovine tuberculosis in human is becoming increasingly important in developing countries like Nigeria as human and animals are sharing the same micro-environment and dwelling premises especially in rural areas (12). Historically, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in human was associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and this is still the most important route of exposure in developing countries

(13). Rural inhabitants and some urban dwellers in Nigeria still consume unpasteurized and soured milk potentially infected with Mycobacterium bovis (12). The human cases of tuberculosis......


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