PRESS COVERAGE OF THE BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CONFLICT-SENSITIVE JOURNALISM IN NIGERIA (2013/2014)


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
2.1 Conceptualization of Insurgency and Terrorism
2.2 American Definition of Terrorism
2.3 European Definition of Terrorism
2.4 Asian and African Definitions of Terrorism
2.5 Academic Definition of Terrorism
2.6 Comparison of the Definitions
2.7 Conflict-Sensitive Journalism and its Perspectives
2.8 Methodological Issues in Studying Conflict Sensitive-Journalism
2.9 Media and National Security
2.10 Boko Haram and the Maitatsine Similarities and Implications in Nigeria
2.11     Causes of Boko Haram in Nigeria
2.11.1 Poverty
2.11.2 Corruption among Security officers
2.11.3 Glorification of Insurgents’ Activities by the Media
2.12     Insurgents News Framing and its Sources
2.13     Boko Haram Coverage, Media Ownership and Location
2.14     Symbiotic Relationship between the Press and the Insurgents
2.15     Insurgency and the Northern Perception of Westernization
2.16     Insurgents and the Motive of  Attention Seeking
2.17     Studies on Press Coverage of Insurgency
2.18     Press Coverage and its Salient Angles of Events
2.19     Shaping Role of Agenda Setting and Priming Theories
2.20     Theoretical Framework

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Content Universe
3.3       Sampling Technique
3.4       Sample Size
3.5       Coding Scheme
3.6       Content Categories
3.7       Unit of Analysis
3.8       Inter coder Reliability Test
3. 9      Method of Data Analysis/Presentation

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1       DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2       Interview with the Reporters
4.3       Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1: Summary
5. 2: Conclusion
5.3: Recommendations
References



ABSTRACT

This study analyses the coverage of the Boko Haram insurgency by DailyTrust, Leadership, Vanguard and Punch newspapers and examines its implications for conflict-sensitive journalism in Nigeria. The objectives are to determine the consistency of the newspapers’ coverage of the Boko Haram insurgency with conflict-sensitive journalism and the framing of identity and motive of Boko Haram. The study also examines the treatment recommendations offered by the newspapers and the areas of salient emphasis. The study combines content analysis and in-depth interview methods to obtain relevant data. Framing theory was adopted. Findings reveal that Nigerian journalists are not fully adopting conflict-sensitive journalism in their reportage. It also shows that the identity of Boko Haram is Islamist sect with the motive of establishing an Islamic state. It indicates that the major solution is fighting the insurgents and the perceived risk is the collapse of the economy. The study concludes that the coverage of Boko Haram by the Nigerian newspapers is sensational, war-inclined and falls short of the solution-driven approaches encouraged in conflict-sensitive journalism. The study recommends that Nigerian journalists should increase their knowledge of the conflict-sensitive journalism so that they can make important contributions in finding solutions to the problem of Boko Haram insurgency.




CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background to the Study

Ever since the inception of democracy in Nigeria, people have been expressing divergent views on its benefits. To some, it is a threat to the security of their lives and property, while those that are key participants in the polity recognize it as suitable for the country. Knowing the importance of peace for the citizens, studies on insurgency have attracted experts’ attention whose literature has been of help to policy makers both governmental and nongovernmental to strategize plans against Boko

Haram. Notwithstanding the universality of terrorists’ activities in many parts of the world, to

Nigerians, Boko Haram’s bomb attacks are the first of its kind, therefore becoming difficult to tackle.


In the words of Ojo (2011) commenting on the Nigeria’s security challenges in this democratic setting, the greatest security challenge facing President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration is the imposing impunity of terrorist activities of the Boko Haram, an Islamic fundamentalists based in Northern Nigeria. It is on record that between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011 alone Nigeria witnessed over fifty cases of bomb blasts across the country with a casualty figure of over 800 people dead and many injured. In addition, millions of Naira and properties were destroyed. It was also revealed that there are foreign militias from Somalia, Chad, Sudan and other Islamic countries in Borno state. From 2010 to 2015, the casualties of Boko Haram’s attacks are too many to be counted but can be estimated in thousands.

According to President Goodluck Jonathan, while commenting on the Boko Haram challenges, “the emerging dimension of threat to national security that is rearing its horrible head in our nation must be confronted headfirst and defeated. The spate of violent crimes in parts of the country including kidnapping, armed robbery, assassinations etc. are contemporary security challenges facing our nation” (Soriwei and Fidelis, 2010:11)......

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