PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH JATROPHA CURCAS ACCESSIONS IN SOME LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Justification
1.2       Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Cultivation Requirements
2.2       Botanical Description of Jatropha
2.3       World Jatropha Production Pattern
2.4       Uses of Jatropha
2.5       Plant Parasitic Nematodes
2.6       Jatropha Pests and Diseases Status
2.7       Disease Complexes Involving Root-Knot Nematodes and Jatropha

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Determination of Nematodes Associated with Jatropha Accessions
3.1.1    Survey of Jatropha farms
3.1.2    Extraction and identification of nematode genera associated with Jatropha
3.2       Determination of Absolute Frequency, Prominence Value and Index of Similarity
3.3       Determination of Pathogenicity of the Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita
3.4       Data Collection
3.5       Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendations
REFERENCES
Appendix



ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to determine the genera, frequency and prominence value of plant parasitic nematodes associated with Jatropha curcas accessions in Sabon Gari, Kudan, Giwa and Zaria Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria in 2013. Using systematic random method of sampling, 72 soil and root samples were collected from the Jatropha plant stands, and nematodes extracted from the samples using the sieving and decanting and modified Baermann pan methods. Twenty-four genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were recorded in all the locations. Plant-parasitic nematodes recovered includes Scutellonema, Hoplolaimus, Pratylenchus, Aphelenchus, Meloidogyne, Tylenchoryhnchus, Rotylenchus, Longidorus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus Heterodera Xiphinema, Tylenchus, Criconemoides, Hemicycliophora, Aphelenchoides, Tetylenchus, Trichodorus, Dorylaimus, Tylenchulus, Telotylenchus, Pratylenchoides, Telotylenchoides, and Rotylenchoides. The most prominent nematode from the soil were Scutellonema with prominence value of 81.09, followed by

Meloidogyne and Rotylenchus with prominence values of 46.50 and 39.60 respectively, and from the roots, Scutellonema, Meloidogyne and Rotylenchus with prominence values of 77.15, 50.93 and 26.94, respectively. Scutellonema, Tylenchus and

Meloidogyne were the most abundant nematodes from the soil with frequency values of 97.22%, 95.83% and 86.11% respectively, while Meloidogyne, Scutellonema, and

Pratylenchus were the most abundant nematodes from the root with frequency values of 55.56%, 34.72% and 25.00% respectively,

Reaction of Jatropha curcas accessions; IARJAT2009020, IARJAT2009011, IARJAT2009041 and IARJAT2009016 to infection with 2000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita was evaluated under controlled environmental conditions in Samaru. There was no significant differences at P=0.05 between the four accessions with respect to number of galls/ root at 8 weeks after inoculation and final nematode population count. IARJAT2009016 had the highest galls/ root 10.0 followed by IARJAT2009041with 6.67 galls/ root. However, final population count had IARJAT2009011with 37.27 followed by IARJAT2009016, 28.11 and lowest population 13.50 obtained on IARJAT2009041. Although plant parasitic nematodes were found to be associated with Jatropha curcas on the surveyed areas the pathogenicity test has shown that Meloidogyne incognita is not pathogenic on the Jatropha curcas accessions used. These accessions (IARJAT2009020, IARJAT2009011, IARJAT2009041 and IARJAT2009016) therefore may be used to manage Meloidogyne incognita infected soils in a mixed crop combination.





CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION

The term “Jatropha” is usually used to refer to the species Jatropha curcas, although there are approximately 170 known species of the plant (Dehgan, 1984), they include

Jatropha integerrima, Jatropha cardiophylla, Jatropha cathartica, Jatropha cinerea, Jatropha cuneata, Jatropha podagrica and Jatropha curcas. It originated from Central America (Jongschaap et al., 2007). It was introduced to Africa and Asia and cultivated world-wide in many parts of the tropics and subtropics where it is grown as a hedge crop and for traditional use (Heller, 1996; Kumar and Sharma, 2008). Jatropha curcas is the most common species recorded in Nigeria. Names used to describe the plant vary per region or country. It is most commonly known as “Physic nut”. In Nigeria it is known as “cinidazugu” “wuluidi” and “lapalapa” in Hausa Igbo and Yoruba languages respectively (Blench, 2007).


Jatropha curcas is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, a large drought-resistant multipurpose shrub with several attributes and considerable potential and has evoked interest all over the tropics as a potential biofuel crop (Jones and Miller, 1991; Openshaw, 2000). J. curcas has a straight trunk with thick branchlets. It has green leaves with a length and width of 6 cm to 15 cm. Five roots are formed from seeds: one tap root and 4 lateral roots and cuttings do not develop a taproot (Heller, 1996). The branches contain whitish latex, which causes brown stains that are difficult to remove. The fruits is about 40 mm length and contains 3 seeds (on average), which look like black beans with similar dimensions, of about 18 mm long and 10 mm wide. The seed coats constitute about 35~40% of the total seeds (www.jartropha.org). The plant and its seeds are toxic to animals and humans and are therefore used worldwide as hedges to.....


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