PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMALARIAL STUDIES OF THE LEAVES OF UVARIA CHAMAE P.BEAUV. (ANNONACEAE)


For more Pharmaceutical & Medical Chemistry Project click here



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviation

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Natural product
1.2       Traditional medcine
1.3       Malaria
1.3.1    Resistance to Malaria Chemotherapy
1.4       Medicinal plants use `for malaria treatment
1.5       Sources of Drugs
1.5.1    Natural Source
1.5.2    Synthetic Drugs
1.5.3    Biosynthetic Sources
1.6       Statement ofResearch Problem
1.7       Justification of the Study
1.8       Aim of the Study
1.9       Specific Objectives
1.10     Hypothesis

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       The Plants
2.2       Habitat
2.3       Taxonomy/ Nomenclature of the Plant
2.3.1    Common and Local Names
2.4       Botanical Description
2.5       Ethnomedicinal Uses
2.6       Pharmacological Action of Plants from the Genus Uvaria
2.7       Chemical Constituents
2.7.1    Flavonoids
2.7.1.1 Flavones
2.7.1.2 Flavonols
2.7.1.3 Flavanones
2.7.1.4 Flavanonols
2.7.1.5 Isoflavones
2.7.1.6 Neoflavonoids
2.7.1.7 Flavanols or flavan-3-ols or catechins
2.7.1.8 Anthocyanidins
2.7.1.9 Chalcones

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Materials and Methods
3.1       Materials
3.1.1    Solvents/Reagents and Chromatography Materials
3.1.2    Equipment
3.1.3    Experimental Animals
3.1.4    Malaria Parasites
3.2       Methods
3.2.1    Collection and Identification of Plant Material
3.2.2    Extraction and Partitioning
3.2.3    Preliminary phytochemical Screening
3.2.3.1 Test for Anthraquinones
3.2.3.2 Test for Alkaloids
3.2.3.1Test for Carbohydrates
3.2.3.4 Test for Cardiac Glycosides
3.2.3.5 Test for Saponins
3.2.3.4 Test for Flavonoids
3.2.3.7 Test for Tannins
3.2.3.8 Test for Steroids/Triterpenes
3.2.4    Chromatographic procedures
3.2.4.1 Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis
3.2.4.2 Column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction
3.2.4.3 Gel Filtration Chromatography
3.2.4.4 Melting Point determination
3.2.4.5 Test for catechins
3.2.5    Pharmacological studies
3.2.5.1 Acute toxicity studies
3.2.5.2 Antimalarial Studies

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Results
4.1       Extraction Yield
4.2       Phytochemical constituent of the leave extract of Uvaria chamae
4.3       Thin Layer Chromatography
4.3.1 Thin-layer Chromatography of the crude extracts and partitioned fractions
4.4       Column Chromatography of Ethyl acetate Fraction
4.5       Gel- Filtration of column fraction F4
4.5.1TLC Profile of HB developed in different solvent system
4.6       Solubility Profile of HB
4.7       Melting Point of HB
4.8       Chemical Test on HB
4.9       UV Spectra of Compound HB
4.10                 IR Spectra of Compound HB
4.11                 Proton NMR Spectrum of HB
4.12  ESI-MS of Compound HB (negative mode)
4.13  ESI-MS of Compound HB (positive mode)
4.14                 Pharmacological Studies
4.14.1  Toxicity Study
4.14.2  Antimalarial studies

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Discussions

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendations
References
Appendix



ABSTRACT

Uvaria chamae P.Beauv. belong to the Annonaceae family of flowering plants. It is distributed in the savannah and secondary forest. The plant is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of malaria, inflammation, gonorrhea, dysentery; pile and fever. The ethyl alcohol leaves extract of the plant was subjected to phytochemical as well as antimalarial studies. Phytochemical studies were carried out using techniques including preliminary phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatographic analysis (TLC), column chromatography and gel filtration. The antimalarial activity of the crude ethyl alcohol leaves extract was evaluated using two models, suppressive and curative tests. The result of the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. A flavonoids was isolated from the extract. The structure of the compound isolated was elucidated using UV, IR, 1D NMR and ESI-MS. The compound was found to be an epicatechin (3, 3, 4, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavan). The leaf extract caused no lethality in mice at oral LD50 value of greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. This indicated that the extract is safe for oral use. In the suppressive test the extract exhibited good antimalarial property that was dose dependent. At doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kgbody weight the extract produced a significant (P< 0.05) chemosuppression of 48, 53.3 and 65% respectively. Chloroquine the positive control drug produced the highest parasite chemosuppression at 79%. In the curative test the extract at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight produced significant (P< 0.05) chemosuppression at 68, 70 and 73% respectively. Chloroquine the positive control drug produced the highest parasite chemosuppression of 98%. The result of this studies has established the rationale for the use of this plant in ethnomedicine. The isolated compound might be responsible for the observed biological activity.




CHAPTER ONE


1.0 INTRODUCTION


1.1            Natural Product


A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism. In the broadest sense, natural products include any substance produced by life (Samuelson, 1999). Natural products can also be prepared by chemical synthesis and have played a central role in the development of the field of organic chemistry by providing challenging synthetic targets (Natural Products Foundation, 2013). Within the field of organic chemistry, the definition of natural products is usually restricted to mean purified organic compounds isolated from natural sources (Hanson, 2003). Within the field of medicinal chemistry, the definition is often further restricted to secondary metabolites (Williams and Lemke, 2002). Secondary metabolites are not essential for survival, but nevertheless provide organisms that produce them with an evolutionary advantage (Maplestone et al., 1992). Many secondary metabolites are cytotoxic and have been selected and optimized through evolution for use as chemical warfare agents against prey, predators, and competing organisms (Hunter, 2008). Natural products sometimes have pharmacological or biological activity that can be of therapeutic benefit in treating diseases. As such, natural products are the active components of drugs not only for most traditional medicines but also for many modern medicines (Samuelson, 1999).....


For more Pharmaceutical & Medical Chemistry Project click here


___________________________________________________________________________
This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

PAYMENT  OPTION 1:
Kindly pay a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Skye Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Damilola
A/C No.:         1013708342

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, Teller No., and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.


PAYMENT  OPTION 2:
You can make an online payment here for this material:


After a successful Online Web Payment, kindly Click Here to fill the “Payment Details Form”


--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.