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Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviation

1.0       Introduction
1.1       Natural product
1.2       Traditional medcine
1.3       Malaria
1.3.1    Resistance to Malaria Chemotherapy
1.4       Medicinal plants use `for malaria treatment
1.5       Sources of Drugs
1.5.1    Natural Source
1.5.2    Synthetic Drugs
1.5.3    Biosynthetic Sources
1.6       Statement ofResearch Problem
1.7       Justification of the Study
1.8       Aim of the Study
1.9       Specific Objectives
1.10     Hypothesis

2.0       Literature Review
2.1       The Plants
2.2       Habitat
2.3       Taxonomy/ Nomenclature of the Plant
2.3.1    Common and Local Names
2.4       Botanical Description
2.5       Ethnomedicinal Uses
2.6       Pharmacological Action of Plants from the Genus Uvaria
2.7       Chemical Constituents
2.7.1    Flavonoids Flavones Flavonols Flavanones Flavanonols Isoflavones Neoflavonoids Flavanols or flavan-3-ols or catechins Anthocyanidins Chalcones

3.0       Materials and Methods
3.1       Materials
3.1.1    Solvents/Reagents and Chromatography Materials
3.1.2    Equipment
3.1.3    Experimental Animals
3.1.4    Malaria Parasites
3.2       Methods
3.2.1    Collection and Identification of Plant Material
3.2.2    Extraction and Partitioning
3.2.3    Preliminary phytochemical Screening Test for Anthraquinones Test for Alkaloids for Carbohydrates Test for Cardiac Glycosides Test for Saponins Test for Flavonoids Test for Tannins Test for Steroids/Triterpenes
3.2.4    Chromatographic procedures Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis Column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction Gel Filtration Chromatography Melting Point determination Test for catechins
3.2.5    Pharmacological studies Acute toxicity studies Antimalarial Studies

4.0       Results
4.1       Extraction Yield
4.2       Phytochemical constituent of the leave extract of Uvaria chamae
4.3       Thin Layer Chromatography
4.3.1 Thin-layer Chromatography of the crude extracts and partitioned fractions
4.4       Column Chromatography of Ethyl acetate Fraction
4.5       Gel- Filtration of column fraction F4
4.5.1TLC Profile of HB developed in different solvent system
4.6       Solubility Profile of HB
4.7       Melting Point of HB
4.8       Chemical Test on HB
4.9       UV Spectra of Compound HB
4.10                 IR Spectra of Compound HB
4.11                 Proton NMR Spectrum of HB
4.12  ESI-MS of Compound HB (negative mode)
4.13  ESI-MS of Compound HB (positive mode)
4.14                 Pharmacological Studies
4.14.1  Toxicity Study
4.14.2  Antimalarial studies

5.0       Discussions

6.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendations


Uvaria chamae P.Beauv. belong to the Annonaceae family of flowering plants. It is distributed in the savannah and secondary forest. The plant is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of malaria, inflammation, gonorrhea, dysentery; pile and fever. The ethyl alcohol leaves extract of the plant was subjected to phytochemical as well as antimalarial studies. Phytochemical studies were carried out using techniques including preliminary phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatographic analysis (TLC), column chromatography and gel filtration. The antimalarial activity of the crude ethyl alcohol leaves extract was evaluated using two models, suppressive and curative tests. The result of the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. A flavonoids was isolated from the extract. The structure of the compound isolated was elucidated using UV, IR, 1D NMR and ESI-MS. The compound was found to be an epicatechin (3, 3, 4, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavan). The leaf extract caused no lethality in mice at oral LD50 value of greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. This indicated that the extract is safe for oral use. In the suppressive test the extract exhibited good antimalarial property that was dose dependent. At doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kgbody weight the extract produced a significant (P< 0.05) chemosuppression of 48, 53.3 and 65% respectively. Chloroquine the positive control drug produced the highest parasite chemosuppression at 79%. In the curative test the extract at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight produced significant (P< 0.05) chemosuppression at 68, 70 and 73% respectively. Chloroquine the positive control drug produced the highest parasite chemosuppression of 98%. The result of this studies has established the rationale for the use of this plant in ethnomedicine. The isolated compound might be responsible for the observed biological activity.



1.1            Natural Product

A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism. In the broadest sense, natural products include any substance produced by life (Samuelson, 1999). Natural products can also be prepared by chemical synthesis and have played a central role in the development of the field of organic chemistry by providing challenging synthetic targets (Natural Products Foundation, 2013). Within the field of organic chemistry, the definition of natural products is usually restricted to mean purified organic compounds isolated from natural sources (Hanson, 2003). Within the field of medicinal chemistry, the definition is often further restricted to secondary metabolites (Williams and Lemke, 2002). Secondary metabolites are not essential for survival, but nevertheless provide organisms that produce them with an evolutionary advantage (Maplestone et al., 1992). Many secondary metabolites are cytotoxic and have been selected and optimized through evolution for use as chemical warfare agents against prey, predators, and competing organisms (Hunter, 2008). Natural products sometimes have pharmacological or biological activity that can be of therapeutic benefit in treating diseases. As such, natural products are the active components of drugs not only for most traditional medicines but also for many modern medicines (Samuelson, 1999).....

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