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Title Page
Table of contents

1.1       Traditional Medicines
1.2       Standardization of Crude Drugs
1.3       Plants as Antibacterial Agent
1.4       Phytochemistry
1.5       Antibacterial Activity
1.6       Statement of Research Problem
1.7       Justification of the study
1.8       Hypothesis
1.9       Aim and Objectives

2.1       Description of Fabaceae
2.2       morphological Characteristics of Fabaceae
2.3       Taxonomy of Fabaceae
2.4       Chemotaxonomy of Fabaceae
2.5       Distribution and Habitat of Fabaceae
2.6       Description of the Species: Swartzia madagascariensis
2.6.1Other species from the Swartzia Genus
2.7 Chemical constituents of Swartzia madagascariensis
2.7.1 Chemical constituents from other Swartzia Species
2.8       Biological Activities of Swartzia species
2.9       Ethnomedicinal and Economic Importance of S. madagascariensis
2.10     Habitat and Distribution of S. madagascariensis

3.1       Materials, Chemicals, Equipments, Solvents,Reagents/Solutions
3.1.1List of Reagent/ Solvents
3.1.2 List of Equipments
3.2       Collection, Identification and Preparation of S. madagascariensis
3.3       Extraction of the leaves of S. madagascariensis
3.4       Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of S. madagascariensis
3.4.1    Microscopic Examination of the Leaves of S. madagascariensis
3.4.2    Quantitative Microscopy of the Leaf of S. madagascariensis
3.4.3    Setting up the Camera Lucida for Quantitative Leaf Microscopy
3.4.4    Chemomicroscopic Studies of Leaves of S. madagascariensis
3.4.5    Determination of Leaf Constant
3.5 Physicochemical Constant of the Powdered Leaf of S. madagascariensis
3.5.1    Determination of Moisture Contents (Loss on drying) Method
3.5.2    Total Ash Values
3.5.3    Acid Insoluble Ash
3.5.4    Water Soluble Ash
3.6 Extractive Values
3.6.1 Water Soluble Extractive Value
3.6.2 Ethanol Soluble Extractive Value
3.7 Phytochemical Screening of the Leaf Extract of S. madagascariensis
3.7.1    Test for Carbohydrates
3.7.2    Tests for Alkaloids
3.7.3    Test for Tannins
3.7.4    Test for Flavonoids
3.7.5    Tests for Saponins
3.7.6    Test for Cardiac Glycosides
3.7.7    Test for Anthracenes
3.8       Determination of Median Lethal Dose (LD50)
3.9       Antibacterial Studies of the Leaf Extracts of S. madagascariensis
3.9.1    Collection of Clinical Isolates
3.9.2    Preparation of Stock Solution
3.9.3    Preparation of Culture Media
3.9.4    Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
3.9.5    Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations
3.10     Thin Layer Chromatographic Profile of Ethyl acetate Extract
3.11     Statistical Analysis

4.0       RESULTS
4.1       Plant Collection, Identification and Preparation
4.2       Extraction of the Leaves of S. madagascariensis
4.3       Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of S. madagascariensis
4.3.1    Microscopical Studies of the Leaves of S. madagascariensis
4.3.2    Powder Microscopy of S. madagascariensis Leaves
4.3.3    Chemomicroscopic Studies
4.3.4    Quantitative Microscopy on the Leaves of S. madagascariensis
4.3.5 Physicochemical Constants of Powdered leaves of S. madagascariensis
4.4       Phytochemical Screening of Leaves of S. madagascariensis
4.5       Median Lethal Dose (LD50)
4.6       Antibacterial Screening of the Leaf Extracts of S. madagascariensis
4.6.1    Zones of Inhibition of the Hexane, Ethyl acetate and Ethanol Leaf Extracts
4.6.2    Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of the Leaf Extracts of S. madagascariensis
4.6.3    Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of the Leaves Extracts
4.7 Thin Layer Chromatographic Studies of the Most Active Extract


6.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendations


This study evaluated the pharmacognostic standards and antibacterial properties of the leaf extracts of Swartzia madagascariensis Desv (Fabaceae). This plant is widely distributed in Northern part of Nigeria; it has been exploited for both its medicinal and economic importance. It is used in the treatment of infections such as cutaneous wounds. Microscopic, chemo-microscopic, quantitative microscopic studies, qualitative and thin layer chromatographic studies, toxicity studies and antibacterial evaluation were carried out using standard methods. Microscopical studies revealed the presence of straight - walled anticlinal walls, polygonal epidermal cells, trichomes, anomocytic stomata on abaxial surface. The transverse section of the leaf through the lamina and midrib tissue was examined and revealed different anatomical features include: epidermal layers, palisade and spongy mesophyll cells, vascular bundles consisting of xylem and phloem vessels. Microscopy of the powder revealed fragments of starch grain, calcium oxalate crystals, lignified collenchyma, unicellular covering trichome and lignified fibre as a characteristic of the plant. Chemomicroscopical studies of the powdered leaves were found to have cellulose, lignin, calcium oxalate, tannins, and starch. The quantitative microscopic results were observed to be: stomatal number (201), stomatal index (9.5), palisade ratio (7.3), vein islets (29.5) and vein termination numbers (15.0). The physicochemical constants evaluated were moisture contents (6.7%), total ash value (6.0%), water soluble ash (4.5%), acid insoluble ash (1.0%), ethanol extractive value (15%) and water extractive value (24%). Phytochemical screening on the plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and anthracenes. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate extract (most active extract) confirms the presence of some chemical constituents in the leaf extracts namely flavonoids, steroids and triterpenes. Acute toxicity study found the leaf extract to have an LD50 of 288.5mg/kg body weight (i.p) in mice. The antibacterial studies carried out on the leaf extracts showed zones of inhibition ranging from 17-18 mm, 24-27 mm and 21-22 mm for hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts respectively. These values were less than that of ciprofloxacin (32 – 37 mm) that was used as the standard antibacterial drug. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the three extracts was determined at 0.5 scale Mc-farland‟s turbidity standard. The extracts at the concentrations of 20 mg/ml (hexane), 10 mg/ml (ethyl acetate) and 10 mg/ml (ethanol). They also gave Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations at 40 mg/ml each of hexane and ethanol extracts and 20 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate extract. It was observed that gram positive bacteria (Staph. aureus and Strep. pyogenes) were more sensitive to the extracts than the gram negative bacteria (E. coli). Results of the present studies had shown that S. madagascariensis is a promising medicinal plant with antibacterial property.



1.1   Traditional Medicine

Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health, as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illnesses. This has been used for thousands of years with great contributions made by practitioners to human health, particularly as primary health care providers at the community level (WHO, 2000).

With these descriptions, various forms of medicines and therapies such as herbal medicine, massage, homeopathy, mud bath, music therapy, wax bath, reflexology, dance therapy, hydrotherapy, mind and spirit therapies, self-exercise therapies, radiation and vibration, osteopathy, chiropractice, aromatherapy, preventive medicine, radiant heat therapy, therapeutic fasting and dieting, spinal manipulation, psychotherapy, etc. are elements of traditional medicine. It does show that a large country of the size of Nigeria, with diverse cultures and traditions, should be rich in traditional medicine and should have eminent and respected traditional healers to take care of the teeming population (Adeshina, 2008).

It is important to stress the relevance of traditional medicine to the majority of Nigerian and the world. Most Nigerian, especially those living in rural communities don‟t have access to orthodox medicine and it is estimated that about 80% percent of the populace still prefer to solve their health problems consulting traditional healers. Where access to orthodox medicine exists, the rising cost of imported medications and other commodities used for medicine has posed big problems. Beside, many rural communities have great faith in....

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