OCCURRENCE OF PARASITES’ CYSTS, OOCYSTS AND EGGS ON BANK FACILITIES IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Justification of the Study
1.4       Aim of the Study
1.5       Objectives
1.6       Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Species of Parasitic Organisms Producing Contaminative Cysts, Oocysts and Ova in the Environment
2.1.1    Protozoa
2.1.2    Helminths
2.2       Prevalence of Parasites with Cysts, Oocysts and Ova
2.2.1    Protozoa
2.2.2    Helminths
2.3       Factors Promoting the Occurrence and Viability of Parasites’ Cysts and Ova in the Environment
2.3.1    Environmental insanitation
2.3.2    Poor personal hygiene
2.3.3    Socio-economic factors
2.3.4    Age of Host
2.4       Prevalence, Intensity and Distribution of Parasites’ Cysts and Ova in Diverse Environmental Surfaces
2.4.1    Fruits and vegetables
2.4.2    Sachet water
2.4.3    Paper currency
2.4.4    Computer accessories
2.4.5    Human peri-domestic environment
2.5       Pathogenicity and Medical Importance of Parasites with Cysts and Ova
2.5.1    Protozoa
2.5.2    Helminths
2.6       Intensity of Parasite’s Cysts and Ova in Human

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Study Area
3.2       Selection of Banks for the Study
3.3       Sampling Points
3.4       Sample Size Determination
3.5       Sample Collection and Preservation
3.6       Preliminary Processing and Storage of Samples
3.7       Parasitological Assay of Samples
3.8       Identification of Parasites’ Stages
3.9       Statistical Analysis of Data

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS
4.1       Species of Parasitic Organisms with Cysts, Oocysts and Ova on Bank Facilities
4.2       Types and Diversity of Bank Facilities on which Cysts, Oocysts and Ova of Parasites Occurred
4.3       Intensities of cysts, oocysts and ova of parasites among bank facilities and banks

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1       Conclusion
6.2       Recommendation
REFERENCES


ABSTRACT

Species of parasitic organisms whose cysts, oocysts and ova occurred on specific commercial banks' facilities and intensities of contamination were evaluated via environmental parasitological assays in the three towns of Benue State, Northcentral Nigeria. Eighteen (18) of the common commercial banks (six per town) with wide branch network in the state, that consented, were selected on random ballot and screened for resistant stages of parasitic organisms on twelve facilities-door handles(inner and outer handles), automated teller machines (ATMs)(down and upper instruction knobs), computer accessories (keyboards and mouse), Currency (paper and polymer notes), counting machines (cash loader and cash receiver) and counter/slab surfaces(banking hall and bulk room). Sterile cotton swabs wetted with sterile normal saline were used to swab the surfaces of interest at the designated banks, preserved in refrigerated capped universal bottles containing 10ml each of normal saline and 4% formalin and thereafter subjected to both the centrifugal sedimentation and Zinc sulphate floatation techniques to isolate parasite stages. Of the 396 facilities screened, the cysts/oocysts of seven parasitic protozoans were isolated, including Entamoeba histolytica 251/396 (63.38%),

Cryptosporidium species 155/396 (39.14%), Entamoeba coli 44/396 (11.11%), Giardia intestinalis 33/396 (8.33%), Balantidium coli 9/396 (2.27%), Cyclospora species 7/396 (1.77%) and Isospora species 2/396 (0.51%). Ova of eight species of parasitic helminths encountered on the screened facilities included those of Ascaris lumbricoides 106/396 (26.77%), Trichuris trichiura 15/396 (3.79%), hookworm 14/396 (3.54%), Taenia species 14/396 (3.54%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 6/396 (1.52%), Capillaria species 3/396 (0.76%), Enterobius vermicularis 2/396 (0.51%), Toxocara canis 2/396 (0.51%).

Up to 304 (76.80%) of the six bank facility types were positive with cysts/oocysts of at least three of the seven protozoan parasites while 138 (34.8%) of the facilities were positive with ova of at least four of the eight helminth parasites. The study established that bank facilities are repositories of resistant stages of important zoonotic human and veterinary parasites thus highlighting their potential roles as contaminative transmission sources and public health risks.
 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                  INTRODUCTION


1.1              Background

Parasites are organisms that live upon or within another living organism known as the host, at whose expense they obtain some advantages such as food, water, heat, habitat and dispersal as well as shelter, and in the process increase their fitness by exploiting the host for resources necessary for their survival (Blood and Virginia, 1988). Parasites reduce hosts‘ fitness in many ways, ranging from general or specialised pathology such as parasitic castration and impairment of secondary sex characteristics, to the modification of host behaviour (Blood and Virginia, 1988).

According to Kathleen and Arthur (2002), intestinal parasites occur worldwide among all human ages and socioeconomic groups. In the 1993 World Development Report, intestinal helminthes rank first as the main cause of disease burden in children aged 5 – 14 years where they constitute formidable health problems resulting in malnutrition, anaemia and disturbed appetite. These may ultimately result in retarded physical and cognitive development in children. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that helminth infections affect around 2 billion people among whom 5-10% are children, as a result of the ingestion of the cysts and ova of parasites (WHO, 2008). Parasites have been identified as the cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world particularly in underdeveloped countries and in persons with comorbidities (Adeyeba and Akinlabi, 2002). It is known that individuals often exposed to and infected with multiple parasitic.....

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