OCCURRENCE AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF Escherichia coli O157:H7 FROM NIGERIAN CURRENCY NOTES (NAIRA), COLLECTED FROM BUTCHERS AT THE MEAT MARKET IN KARU ABATTOIR, ABUJA. NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Aim of the Study
1.5       Objectives of the Study
1.6       Research Question

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Historical Background of Escherichia coli
2.2       Pathotypes of Escherichia coli
2.3       Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7
2.3.1    Global Situation of E. coli infection and contamination
2.3.2    Nigerian Situation of E. coli infection and contamination
2.4       Meat processing and Storage
2.4.1    Reservoir of E. coli spp
2.4.2    Meat processing
2.4.3    Meat storage
2.5       Occurrence of Escherichia on currency notes
2.5.1    Handling of Currency notes at meat market
2.5.2    Prevalence of E. coli on Currency notes
2.6       Pathogenesis and Consequences of E. coli O157:H7 infection
2.6.1    Transmission  of E. coli O157:H7 infection
2.6.2    Clinical Manifestation of E. coli O157:H7 infection
2.6.3    Diagnosis of E. coli O157:H7 infection
2.7       Clinical signs of E. coli O157:H7 infection
2.8       Treatment of E. coli O157:H7 infection
2.9       Prevention and Control of E. coli O157:H7 infection
2.9.1    Resistance of E. coli to antibiotics

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Study Area
3.1.1    Location
3.1.2    Climate
3.2       Study Design
3.2.1    Sample size determination
3.2.2    Materials required for the study
3.2.2.1 Bacteriological culture media
3.2.2.2 Antibiotic impregnated discs
3.2.2.3 Equipment, apparatus and disposable items
3.2.2.4 Paper and polymer naira notes
3.2.3    Sampling technique of naira notes
3.2.3.1 Sampling procedure and data collection
3.2.3.2 Isolation and identification of E.coli
3.2.3.3 Total viable count (TVC)
3.2.3.4 Biochemical Tests using Microbact® 12E identification system
3.2.3.5 Rapid Latex Agglutination Test for E. coli O157: H7
a. Test procedure for O157 (somatic antigen)
b. Test procedure for H7 (flagella antigen)
3.2.3.6 Antimicrobial resistance test
3.2.4    Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1       Contamination of currency notes (Naira) with E. coli collected from butchers at the Karu Abattoir, meat market, Abuja, Nigeria
4.1.1     Level of microbial contamination among currencies sampled from butchers            at the Karu abattoir, meat market Abuja
4.1.2    Mean microbial load from currency notes of the eight denominations sampled from butchers at Karu abattoir, meat market. Abuja
4.1.3    Mean microbial load among currency types sampled from butchers at the Karu abattoir meat market. Abuja
4.1.4    Relationship between level of  microbial load and currency type obtained from butchers at Karu abattoir meat market. Abuja
4.1.5    Occurrence of E. coli from currency notes obtained from butchers at Karu Abattoir meat market
4.1.6    Relationship between the occurrence of E. coli and currency types collected from butchers at Karu Abattoir meat market, Abuja.
4.1.7    Rapid latex agglutination tests of E. coli isolates obtained from currency notes from butchers at the Karu Abattoir meat market
4.1.8    Percentage for Serology using Rapid Latex Agglutination Test for the 12 E. coli isolates obtained from currency notes from butchers at the Karu Abattoir meat market
4.1.9    Antimicrobial  resistance of  E.  coli  isolates  from currency  notes  obtained from butchers at the Karu Abattoir meat market, Abuja, Nigeria

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
5.0DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION
6.1       CONCLUSION
6.2       RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
APPENDICES



ABSTRACT

Currency note is a medium of exchange for goods and services; buying and selling of meat, at meat markets. This present study was designed to evaluate the occurrence, Total viable count (TVC), serology and determination of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli O157:H7 from Nigerian currency notes (Naira) collected from butchers at the meat market in Karu Abattoir, Abuja. The 189 currency notes sampled from the eight currency denominations were subjected to cultivation and isolation using Eosine methylene blue and Sorbitol-MacConkay agar respectively, in which isolates were obtained. All the 189 (100%) naira notes sampled were contaminated with bacteria of the 189 samples, 12 (19.7%) were E. coli, of which 5 (41.7%) were E. coli O157:H7. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the 12 E. coli isolates from currency notes was done using antibiotic disc diffusion method and results were recorded according to CLSI standards. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed that the E. coli isolates were observed to be 100.0% susceptible to vancomycin, oxacillin and penicillin G, while they were observed to be 33.3% resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and amikacin. Currency notes can potentially serve as fomite in transmitting microorganisms such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 which causes enteric diseases in humans. Also poor handling practices of currency notes poses a critical public health threat.




CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background of the Study


Currency notes are widely exchanged for goods and services worldwide (Uneke and Ogbu, 2007). Naira note is the legal tender in Nigeria (Ogba, 2007), it is of two types Polymer and Paper. The paper naira note is a mixture of 75% cotton and 25% linen (Brady and Kelly, 2000) while the polymer is made from a polymer which is biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymer_banknote). Currencies CES  contaminated with pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli(E.coli)can potentially be a vehicle for the spread of the microorganisms when it is exchanged within individuals (Pinner et al., 1996). E. coli O157:H7 is commonly found in the intestines of cattle and cross contamination of any parts of the animal is possible when meat processing is not properly done. The bacterium is also found naturally in the intestines of other animals like pigs, sheep, goats and deer (Govindarajan, 1990; WHO, 2004; Yousuf et al., 2008).

According to Mir-Hassan et al., (2013) study, E. coli was frequently isolated from meat due to the transfer of faecal material during the slaughter process or via transfer from contact surfaces, their study further suggested that it was not unexpected to encounter E. coli on currency notes derived from meat outlets where transfer to currency notes was via improper handling of meat in exchange for currency notes. Uneke and Ogbu, (2007)observed that this route accounted for the high prevalence of enteric bacteria recovered from banknotes sampled from poultry meat shops. The findings also showed that contamination could be introduced outside the retail environment. Butchers with the bloody and dirty fingers receive and give currency notes, leading to the........


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