MODULATORY ROLE OF CABBAGE (Brassica olaeracae) SUPPLEMENT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN – INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents
List of figures
List of abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
1.1       Statement of Research Problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Research Hypothesis
1.4. General Aim
1.4.1 Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Introduction
2.2       Diabetes Mellitus
2.3       Type of Diabetes Mellitus
2.3.1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus
2.3.2 Type 2 diabetes mellitus
2.3.3 Maturity onset of diabetes of the young (MODY)
2.3.4 Gestational diabetes
2.3.5 Neonatal diabetes
2.3.6 Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus
2.4 Metabolic Syndrome
2.5 Abdominal Obesity
2.6 Free Fatty Acid
2.7 C - Reactive Protein
2.8 Leptin
2.9 Tumour Necrosis Factor α
2.10 Adiponectin
2.11 Dyslipidemia
2.12 Hypertension
2.12 Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
2.12.1 Diabetic Nephropathy
2.12.2 Diabetic Neuropathy
2.12.3 Diabetic Retinopathy
2.12.4 Cardiovascular Disease
2.12.5 Erectile Dysfunction
2.13Management of Diabetes Mellitus
2.13.1 Insulin
2.13.2 Oral hypoglycaemic agents
2.13.2.1 Sulfonylureas
2.13.2.2 Metformin
2.13.2.3 Thiazolidinediones
2.13.2.4 Meglitinide analogues
2.13.2.5 α- Glucosidase inhibitors
2.14 Anti Diabetic Medicinal Plants
2.14.1 Cabbage
2.14.2 Brassica juncea
2.14.3 Azadirachta indica
2.14.4 Zea mays
2.14.5 Allium sativum
2.14.6 Vernonia amygdalina
2.14.7 Sphenostylis stenocarpa
2.14.8 Phoenix dactylifera
2.14.9 Juglans regia

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Materials and methods
3.1       Materials
3.1.1 Chemicals
3.1.2 Equipment
3.1.3 Plant Material
3.1.4 Animals
3.2       Methods
3.2.1 Preparation of cabbage supplement
3.2.2 Experimental induction of diabetes mellitus
3.2.3 Experimental design
3.2.4 Determination of blood glucose levels
3.2.5 Collection and preparation of sera samples for lipid profile analysis
3.2.6 Estimation of serum lipid profile
3.2.6.1 Determination of serum total cholesterol
3.2.6.2 Determination of serum triglyceride
3.2.6.3 Determination of serum high density lipoprotein
3.2.6.4 Determination of serum low density lipoprotein
3.2.7 Determination of liver enzyme assay
3.2.7.1 Determination of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
3.2.7.2 Determination of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
3.2.7.3 Determination of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
3.3 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Results
4.1       Changes in the Blood Glucose Levels of Cabbage in Alloxan induced Diabetic Wistar rats
4.2       Lipid Profile of Cabbage fed Alloxan Induced Wistar Rats over a Period of Four Weeks
4.2.1 Total cholesterol assessment
4.2.2 Serum triglyceride
4.2.3 High density lipoprotein
4.2.4 Low density lipoprotein
4.3  Liver Enzymes
4.3.1 Alanine Aminotransferase
4.3.2 Alkaline Phosphatase
4.3.3 Aspartate Aminotransferase

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX
6.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendations
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendations
6.4 contribution to knowledge
References
Appendix



ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem affecting with more people in developing than developed countries. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs have remained the corner stone for the management of diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, apart from having a number of side effects, none of the oral synthetic hypoglycemic agents has been successful in maintaining euglycaemia. The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has gained recognition and recommendation by the World Health Organization especially in developing countries where access to the conventional treatment is expensive and not readily accessible.

Various plants and plant extracts have been found to play an important role in the treatment of diabetes and these plants were believed to have hypoglycemic properties. Cabbage is one of such medicinal plants, whose therapeutic application has a folkloric background. The plant enjoys widespread reputation as a remedy for various ailments. Most of the research work done on cabbage has been on extract. Hence, a scientific verification of its use as a supplement in food would be important in establishing a pharmacological basis for some of the claimed ethnomedicinal uses of the plant. This scientific verification forms the basis of the present investigation using animal models. The aim of the study is to determine the modulatory role of cabbage supplement on blood glucose levels and some physiological parameters in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats. While the objectives were to determine the effects of cabbage on serum glucose levels, to determine the effects of cabbage on lipid profile and also to determine the effects of cabbage on serum liver enzymes activities on alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats respectively. The study was designed to investigate the effect of cabbage supplement on blood glucose, lipid profile and serum liver enzymes on alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of twenty five Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 100 – 150 g were used. They were randomly allocated into five groups of five rats (n = 5 rats/group). Group one were diabetic rats given distilled water and served as the negative control. Group two were diabetic rats that received 5 mg/kg b/w of glibenclamide orally and served as positive control. While, groups three, four and five were diabetic rats that received 10, 25 and 50% cabbage supplement, respectively. All groups were treated for thirty days. Blood glucose and some physiological parameters including lipid profile, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were measured in all rats. Blood glucose level was significantly (p< 0.05) reduced in treated diabetic rats in comparison to the diabetic control rats. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly decreased (p<0 .05="" a="" alp="" alt="" and="" antilipidaemic="" as="" ast="" be="" beneficial="" but="" cabbage="" caused="" considered.="" control="" decrease="" diabetes="" diabetic="" effect="" enzymes.="" feed="" furthermore="" given="" groups.="" has="" high-density="" hypoglycaemic="" in="" increase="" increased="" its="" levels="" lipoprotein="" management="" may="" mellitus="" of="" p="" properties="" results="" serum="" significant="" span="" study="" suggest="" supplement="" supplementation="" than="" that="" the="" this="" thus="" treated="" was="" when="" while="" with="">





CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Diabetes is a disease which affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion with or without varying degree of insulin resistance (Asadujjaman et al., 2011). The number of individuals with diabetes has been increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity (Sarah et al., 2004). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the diabetic population to increase up to 300 million or more by the year 2025 (Patel et al.,

2012). The most important distinctive feature of diabetes is an elevated blood glucose concentration, but this abnormality is just one of a number of biochemical and physiological changes that occur (Olaitan, 2012). Hypercholesterolemia and hyper triglyceridemia are common complications of diabetes mellitus (Akhtar et al., 2007). The treatment of diabetes mainly involves the use of hypoglycaemic drugs in addition to insulin but the unwanted side effects of these drugs prompted a demand for new compounds for the treatment of diabetes (Asadujjaman et al., 2011). The drive for change from orthodox to herbal medicines is to an extent due to the adverse reactions, undesirable side effects of synthetic drugs, the cost of buying modern antidiabetic drugs, which is beyond the reach of the lower class citizens and the belief that natural products are safer to the biological systems (Mohammed et al., 2007). It has now become necessary to search for new compounds in order to overcome these problems, and several traditional medicines are now used to manage diabetes mellitus in different societies all over the continents (Raju et al., 2011).

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is locally called Kabeji in Hausa language and Akojopo or Jaleji in Yoruba language. It is an important vegetable crop of the Brassicaceae family consumed all......


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