MODULATORY EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID ON NEUROBEHAVIOURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES INDUCED BY PROPOFOL ANAESTHESIA IN GOATS


For more Veterinary Physiology project click here



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of content
List of Abbreviations

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Justification of the Study
1.4       General Aim
1.5       Specific Objectives
1.6       Research Hypotheses

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Pain
2.1.1    Classification of pain
2.1.2    Pain recognition and assessment in domestic animals
2.1.3    Pain scales
2.1.4    Pain and behaviour
2.1.5    Mechanism of pain
2.1.6    Pain management
2.2       Oxidative Stress
2.2.1    Pain as a stress factor
2.2.2    Anaesthesia as a stress factor
2.2.3    Antioxidants
2.3       General Anaesthetics
2.3.1    General anaesthesia in goats
2.3.2    Nervous system monitoring during general anaesthesia
2.4       Propofol
2.4.1    Mechanism of action of propofol
2.4.2    Properties of propofol
2.4.3    Pain on injection of propofol
2.4.4    Propofol in goats
2.4.5    Propofol as an antioxidant
2.5       Ascorbic Acid
2.5.1    Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant
2.5.2    Physiological functions of ascorbic acid
2.5.3    Intravenous Use of ascorbic acid
2.5.4    Ascorbic acid as an ergogenic aid
2.5.5    Role of ascorbic acid in pain relief
2.5.6    Toxicity and overdose of ascorbic acid

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1       Experimental Animals
3.2       Anaesthetic Protocol
3.3       Physiological Parameters
3.4       Neurobehavioural Study
3.4.1    Evaluation of reflexes
3.4.2    Behavioural and pain study
3.5       Haematological Parameters
3.5.1    Determination of blood cell counts and packed cell volume
3.5.2    Erythrocyte osmotic fragility
3.6       Biochemical Parameters
3.7       Determination of Superoxide Dismutase, and Glutathione peroxidise
3.7.1    Superoxide dismutase activity
3.7.2    Glutathione peroxidase activity
3.8       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS
4.1       Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Propofol on Onset and Duration of Anaesthesia
4.1.1    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol on onset of anaesthesia
4.1.2    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol on duration of anaesthesia
4.2       Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol on Pain Score
4.3       Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Propofol on Physiological Parameters
4.3.1    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on heart rate
4.3.2    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on respiratory rate
4.3.3    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on rectal temperature
4.4       Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol Anaesthesia on Haematology
4.4.1    Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol anaesthesia on Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
4.4.2    Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol anaesthesia on Leucocyte count
4.4.3    Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol anaesthesia on Red Blood Cell count
4.4.4    Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol anaesthesia on Haemoglobin concentration
4.4.5    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on erythrocyte osmotic fragility
4.5       Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol Anaesthesia on Serum Biochemistry
4.5.1    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on total protein, globulin and albumin concentration
4.5.2    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on serum Urea levels
4.5.3    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on serum antioxidant enzymes
4.5.4    Effect of Ascorbic acid and Propofol anaesthesia on serum enzymes
4.5.5    Effect of Ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on Serum electrolyte concentration
4.6       Effect of Ascorbic Acid and propofol anaesthesia on Reflexes
4.6.1    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on pedal reflex
4.6.2    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on swallowing reflex
4.6.3    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on jaw tone
4.6.4    Effect of ascorbic acid and propofol anaesthesia on palpebral reflex

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1       Conclusion
6.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on neurobehavioural and physiological changes, induced by propofol anaesthesia in goats. Twenty-four Red Sokoto goats divided into four groups were used for the experiment. Goats in group I (VC) received only ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg). Goats in group II (PFOL) received only propofol (5 mg/kg), while those in group III (VC200 + PFOL) and group IV (VC300 + PFOL) were administered with ascorbic acid at the dose rates of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, respectively prior to propofol (5 mg/kg) induction. Pain response after the administration of ascorbic acid and propofol was evaluated in each goat by monitoring and scoring its behaviour. Onset and duration of anaesthesia in the goats were also recorded. Haematological parameters, taken before and after anaesthetic induction, were analyzed for leucocyte count, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. The serum obtained from each blood sample was analyzed for electrolytes (Cl-, Mg2+, Na+, K+, and HCO3-), the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Goats (57.1%) in group IV had a pain score of 0, and none of the goats scored 3. Pain score was highest in goats administered with propofol alone, and scores of 3 and 2 were recorded in 40% and 60% of the treated goats, respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of anaesthesia in the VC300+PFol group (27.29 ± 4.11 min), when compared to the VC200+Pfol (15.29 ± 1.19 min) and PFol groups (10.6 ± 2.23 min). There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in onset of anaesthesia in the VC300+PFol group (2.0 ± 0.22 s) and VC200+Pfol (2.57 ± 0.29 s) when compared to the PFol groups (4.6 ± 0.68 s). There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Mg2+ concentration in only the groups administered with VC but no significant change occured in other electrolytes and serum enzymes. The activity of GPx and SOD rose in the Pfol group (P < 0.05) from 30.4 ± 1.33 IU/L to 36.8 ± 0.97 IU/L and 1.3 ± 0.08 IU/L to 1.7 ± 0.06 IU/L respectively indicating that propofol may be a potent antioxidant. In conclusion, the administration of ascorbic acid prior to propofol anaesthesia ameliorated pain caused by propofol and prior administration of ascorbic acid decreased the onset and increased the duration of propofol anaesthesia in goats.




CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background


Pain is a complex interaction involving sensory, emotional and behavioural factors (Serpell, 2006). Animal pain is an aversive sensory experience representing awareness by the animal of damage or threat to the integrity of its tissues. It changes the animal‘s physiology and behaviour to reduce or avoid the damage, to reduce the likelihood of its recurrence and to promote recovery (Molony, 1997). Pain typically involves a noxious stimulus or event that activates nociceptors in the body‘s tissues and conveys signals to the central nervous system, where they are processed and generate multiple responses (NRC, 2009). Painful stimuli evoke not only discrete sensory perceptions and somatic motor responses, but also marked changes in emotional and autonomic states (Gauriau and Benard, 2002). The ability to quantify the degree of pain experienced by animals is an important component in the assessment of animal welfare (Barnett, 1997), and may provide useful information on the outcome of intervention to ameliorate pain. Pain causes discomfort, impairs functions and immune responses in the body (Hellebrekers, 2000), resulting in negative consequences on livestock production. Inflammatory responses associated with injuries and pains have direct adverse impact on feed intake. Anorexia and lethargy are induced by cytokines, including interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α, released by the inflammatory process, the stimulation of tissue catabolism and exerts their effects on the central nervous system (Johnson, 1997)......


For more Veterinary Physiology project click here


___________________________________________________________________________
This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

PAYMENT  OPTION 1:
Kindly pay a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Skye Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Damilola
A/C No.:         1013708342

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, Teller No., and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed.


PAYMENT  OPTION 2:
You can make an online payment here for this material:


After a successful Online Web Payment, kindly Click Here to fill the “Payment Details Form”


--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.