INFLUENCE OF TRAUMATIC STRESS ON ACADEMIC ADJUSTMENT AMONG TERTIARY INSTITUTION STUDENTS IN POTISKUM, YOBE STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Research Hypotheses
1.6       Significant of the Study
1.7       Basic Assumptions
1.8       Scope and Delimitation

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Traumatic Stress
2.2.2 Academic Adjustment
2.2.3 Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Academic Adjustment
2.3       Theoretical Framework
2.3.1    Stress Response Theory
2.3.2 Information Processing Theory
2.3.3 Conditioning Theory
2.3.4 Psychoanalytic Theory
2.3.5 Mechanisms of Defence
2.3.6 Eric Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
2.4       Review of Empirical Studies
2.5       Summary

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population of the Study
3.4       Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.5       Instruments for Data Collection
3.6       Validity of the Instruments
3.7       Pilot Study
3.8       Reliability of the Instruments
3.9       Procedure for Data Collection
3.10  Procedure for Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Analysis of Bio-data Variables
4.3       Answering the Research Questions
4.4       Hypotheses Testing
4.5       Summary of Major Findings
4.6       Discussion of the Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS        
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation
5.5       Suggestion for Further Studies
            References
            Appendices



ABSTRACT

This study examined the influence of traumatic stress on academic adjustment among tertiary institution students in Potiskum,Yobe state, Nigeria. To guide the study, four research objectives, four research questions and four hypotheses were raised. Ex post factor design was employed to carry out this study. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 364 students from a population of 6767 students of Federal College of Education (Technical) and College of Administrative and Business Studies, both in Potiskum. Two instruments, Traumatic Stress Questionnaire and Academic Adjustment Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using the t-test of independent sample. Four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Analysis of the data showed that there is significant difference in academic adjustment of male and female students who experienced traumatic stress (t=6.593, p=0.000), in favour of male students. While there is no significant difference in academic adjustment of students who experienced traumatic stress based on school (t=0.421, p=0.674), schooling system (t=0.687, p=0.493), and age groups (t=0.772, p=0.440). On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that educational psychologists, parents, counsellors and teachers should provide maximum support to the traumatized students and continually reassure them of positive future in order to improve their academic adjustment.




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Traumatic stress involves exposure to terrible events that are threatening to one’s life or wellbeing. American Psychiatric Association in Walsh (2003) describes traumatic stress as events that involve actual death or threat of injury or death to oneself or significant others. Exposure or witnessing traumatic events generate feelings of being unsafe, powerless or vulnerable (Beckham and Beckham, 2004). While trauma entails the sudden intrusion of new and unexpected information into the memory due to confrontation with violence or death, leaving the sufferer often confused between the previous memory and trauma memory, and in turn causing a psychic separation in consciousness which often leave the survivor confused, frightened and disturbed (Brewin and Holmes,2003).


People generallygot relieved immediately when a traumatic event finally passes (Beckham & Beckham, 2004). But sometimes the impact becomes chronic, complex and persistent and continues to intrude the memory of the sufferer often in forms of disturbing flashbacks and nightmares, occurring and reoccurring while the sufferer struggles for a difficult avoidance. In this case the person may have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which is the severest form of traumatic stress. Post-traumatic stress disorder often prevents the individual from concentration, socialization and getting adjusted which are necessary for educational achievements. Van der kolk (2001) observes that, PTSD sufferers’ problems with negotiating satisfying interpersonal relationship play a significant role in preventing them from leading a satisfying life. Perry (2013) argues that the likelihood of developing PTSD is not the same for all individuals, but is based.....


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